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Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) – Observation, Modelling and Assessment in the Arctic-Boreal Domain

This session is linked to the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX; www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex), a multi-disciplinary, -scale and -component climate change, air quality, environment and research infrastructure and capacity building programme. It is aimed at resolving major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic, Northern Eurasia and China regions. This session aims to bring together researchers interested in (i) understanding environmental changes effecting in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments (system understanding); (ii) determining relevant environmental, climatic, and other processes in Arctic-boreal regions (process understanding); (iii) the further development of the long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based, air/seaborne research infrastructures together with satellite data (observation component); (iv) to develop new datasets and archives of the continuous, comprehensive data flows in a joint manner (data component); (v) to implement validated and harmonized data products in models of appropriate spatio-temporal scales and topical focus (modeling component); (vi) to evaluate impact on society though assessment, scenarios, services, innovations and new technologies (society component).
List of topics:
• Ground-based and satellite observations and datasets for atmospheric composition in Northern Eurasia and China
• Impacts on environment, ecosystems, human health due to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition and chemical transformations of air pollutants in Arctic-boreal regions
• New approaches and methods on measurements and modelling in Arctic conditions;
• Improvements in natural and anthropogenic emission inventories for Arctic-boreal regions
• Physical, chemical and biological processes in a northern context
• Aerosol formation-growth, aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, radiative forcing, feedbacks in Arctic, Siberia, China;
• Short lived pollutants and climate forcers, permafrost, forest fires effects
• Carbon dioxide and methane, ecosystem carbon cycle
• Socio-economical changes in Northern Eurasia and China regions.
PEEX session is co-organized with the Digital Belt and Road Program (DBAR), abstracts welcome on topics:
• Big Earth Data approaches on facilitating synergy between DBAR activities & PEEX multi-disciplinary regime
• Understanding and remote connection of last decades changes of environment over High Asia and Arctic regions, both land and ocean.

Public information:

The session "Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) – Observation, Modelling and Assessment in the Arctic-Boreal Domain" is linked to the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX; www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex), a multi-disciplinary, -scale and -component climate change, air quality, environment and research infrastructure and capacity building programme. It is aimed at resolving major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic, Northern Eurasia and China regions. The session is co-organized with the Digital Belt and Road Program (DBAR).

This session aims to bring together researchers interested in (i) understanding environmental changes effecting in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments (system understanding); (ii) determining relevant environmental, climatic, and other processes in Arctic-boreal regions (process understanding); (iii) the further development of the long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based, air/seaborne research infrastructures together with satellite data (observation component); (iv) to develop new datasets and archives of the continuous, comprehensive data flows in a joint manner (data component); (v) to implement validated and harmonized data products in models of appropriate spatio-temporal scales and topical focus (modeling component); (vi) to evaluate impact on society though assessment, scenarios, services, innovations and new technologies (society component).

Co-organized by BG1/CL2/GI4
Convener: Hanna Lappalainen | Co-conveners: Markku Kulmala, Alexander Baklanov, Alexander Mahura
| Wed, 25 May, 15:55–18:30 (CEST)
Room F1
Public information:

The session "Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) – Observation, Modelling and Assessment in the Arctic-Boreal Domain" is linked to the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX; www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex), a multi-disciplinary, -scale and -component climate change, air quality, environment and research infrastructure and capacity building programme. It is aimed at resolving major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic, Northern Eurasia and China regions. The session is co-organized with the Digital Belt and Road Program (DBAR).

This session aims to bring together researchers interested in (i) understanding environmental changes effecting in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments (system understanding); (ii) determining relevant environmental, climatic, and other processes in Arctic-boreal regions (process understanding); (iii) the further development of the long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based, air/seaborne research infrastructures together with satellite data (observation component); (iv) to develop new datasets and archives of the continuous, comprehensive data flows in a joint manner (data component); (v) to implement validated and harmonized data products in models of appropriate spatio-temporal scales and topical focus (modeling component); (vi) to evaluate impact on society though assessment, scenarios, services, innovations and new technologies (society component).

Wed, 25 May, 15:10–16:40

Session Introduction

On-site presentation
Hanna Lappalainen et al.

A deep understanding of the land - atmosphere - ocean feedbacks and interactions is required to make impact on the sustainable and just development of the Arctic region. The science based knowledge of the Arctic environments would lead to improved mitigation and adaptation plans, sustainable services for the Arctic communities and stakeholders and to well targeted policy actions. At the same time with the science approach we need a process of making  policies acceptable and normative to the people living in the Artic.  AASCO – “Arena gap  analysis of the existing Arctic science co-operations” highlights key areas for the Arctic interactions – feedbacks research from the atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric and social perspectives, and summarizes the potential improvements stemming from the holistic understanding of the Arctic climate system. Furthermore, AASCO aims to provide an outlook and benefits of the bridges between other international approaches like Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) Program, University of Arctic network (U-Arctic), The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme of WMO, Sustainable Arctic Observation Network (SAON) e.g  it’s strategy process called “ROADS” and the Digital Belt and Road (DBAR) program and, in general, of bridges between research and society impact.

How to cite: Lappalainen, H., Petäjä, T., Vihma, T., Baklanov, A., Chalov, S., Qiu, Y., Guo, H., Kasimov, N., Berkman, P., Lihavainen, H., and Kulmala, M.: AASCO – Arena for gap analysis of the existing Arctic science co-operations, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11249, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11249, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Tuukka Petäjä and the iCUPE project team

The Horizon-2020 iCUPE (Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments; https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/icupe) was a science driven the ERA-PLANET (European network for observing our changing planet; http://www.era-planet.eu) Programme Thematic Strand-4 project. The iCUPE overall aim was to evaluate and present a holistic understanding of impacts of various increasing human activities on the polar areas, and especially in the Arctic regions. The iCUPE main scientific impact is related to improved understanding and new knowledge about local and remote sources of Arctic air pollutants, including short-lived climate forcers and their precursors as well as their sinks, and improved quantification of the life cycle of mercury, heavy metals, black carbon and persistent organic pollutants. In addition, iCUPE examined changes in the Arctic snow and ice surfaces, vegetation, biomass characteristics, mapped out the development of natural resources extraction and delivered the new first impact assessments of the future exposure scenarios of pollutants in the Arctic regions. During iCUPE project lifetime the consortium worked on combining integrated in-situ and satellite Earth Observation with multi-scale modelling platform by: (1) synthesizing data from comprehensive long-term measurements, intensive campaigns and satellites, collected during the project or provided by on-going international initiatives; (2) relating the observed parameters to impacts; and (3) delivering novel data products, metrics and indicators to the stakeholders concerning the environmental status, availability and extraction of natural resources in the polar areas. Overall, iCUPE collected a significant body of knowledge, including 24 novel datasets, methods, algorithms and published more than 100 research papers. A summary of the iCUPE project obtained results will presented and discussed.

How to cite: Petäjä, T. and the iCUPE project team: Summary of integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments (iCUPE) project results, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9502, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9502, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Alexander Mahura et al.

The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) is seamless/ online integrated numerical weather prediction and atmospheric chemical transport modelling system capable to simulate simultaneously meteorology – atmospheric composition on regional to subregional – urban scales.

The main areas of the model research and development include: downscaling/  nesting  for  high  resolutions;  improved  resolving  boundary  and  surface  layers  structures; urbanization and sub-layer processes; improvement of advection schemes; integration of natural and anthropogenic emission inventories; implementation of gas-phase chemistry mechanisms, aerosol dynamics and microphysics, aerosol feedback and interactions mechanisms.

The Enviro-components includes: gas-phase chemistry; aerosol microphysics with nucleation, coagulation, condensation of sulfate, mineral dust, sea-salt, black and organic carbon together  with  aerosols’ dry and wet deposition, sedimentation processes;  parameterisations of urban sublayer with modifications of the interaction soil–biosphere–atmosphere scheme; sulfur cycle mechanism with dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and sulfate; radiation scheme improved to  account  explicitly  for  aerosol  radiation interactions  for   aerosol  subtypes; aerosol  activation  implemented in condensation-convection scheme with nucleation dependent on aerosol properties and ice-phase processes; locally  mass-conserving  semi-Lagrangian  numerical  advection  scheme; natural and anthropogenic emission inventories.

The Enviro-HIRLAM utilises extraction and pre-processing of initial/ boundary meteorology-chemistry-aerosol conditions and observations for data assimilation (from ECMWF’s ERA-5 & CAMS), pre-processing of selected emission inventories for anthropogenic and natural emissions. The latest version has been run on CRAY-XC30/40 and Atos BullSequana HPCs machines, and it has been developed through the research and HPC projects such as Enviro-HIRLAM at CSC and Enviro-PEEX & Enviro-PEEX(Plus) at ECMWF, as well as other research projects.

The research, development and science education of the modelling system and its applications will be demonstrated on examples, where the Enviro-HIRLAM is used as a research tool  for studies in domain of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX; https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex) programme. Examples of such include: aspects of regional-subregional-urban downscaling with focus on metropolitan areas of St.Petersburg and Moscow; influence of dust transport from artificial tailing dumps and Cu-Ni smelters of the Kola Peninsula on pollution of environment and health of population; aerosol feedbacks and interactions at regional scale in the Arctic-boreal domain; evaluation of atmosphere-land-sea surfaces interactions, and in particular, heat-moisture exchange/ regime between these surfaces and for better understanding and forecasting of local meteorology in the Arctic; analysis of urban meteorology and atmospheric pollution with integrated approach to high-resolution numerical modelling; and others. The modelling output provides meteorology-chemistry related input to assessment studies for population and environment as well as can be integrated into GIS environment for further risk/vulnerability/consequences/etc. estimation, and other studies.

The science education component for the model is also realised though short-term visits of young researchers, organization and carrying out research training weeks. The latest face-to-face trainings took place in Apr and Jun 2019 (Helsinki and Tyumen), and online in Nov-Dec 2021 (https://megapolis2021.ru).

How to cite: Mahura, A., Nuterman, R., Baklanov, A., Nerobelov, G., Savenets, M., Pysarenko, L., Sedeeva, M., Amosov, P., Losev, A., Maksimova, V., Pankratov, F., Krakowska, S., Smyshlayaev, S., Petaja, T., and Kulmala, M.: Seamless Modelling for Environmental Studies: Enviro-HIRLAM Recent Research and Development , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10551, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10551, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Mykhailo Savenets et al.

The study presents the analysis of regional atmospheric condition changes in Ukraine caused by direct and indirect aerosol effects performed by a series of simulations using the Environment – High Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM). The research is based on two case studies. The first case study includes a severe wildfire event in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (northern part of Ukraine) which was observed in April 2020. The second case study analyzed the influence of hypothetical total deforestation in Ukraine during the extreme heat wave and heavy rain episodes in August 2010. Enviro-HIRLAM model was run for the domain with 15-km resolution and further downscaling to 5 and 2-km resolution. The simulations include 4 running modes: reference run with no aerosol effects (CTRL); including direct (DAE), indirect (IDAE) and both (DAE+IDAE) aerosol effects. The study analyzes the aerosol impact on thermal and moisture regimes at the surface and on the model levels up to 5 km above the ground. It is emphasized the role of anthropogenic and natural processes at the surface (like wildfires, land cover changes, etc.) on the enhancing of aerosol effects during extreme and unfavorable weather conditions. This study is supported by the grants of HPC-Europa3 Transnational Access Programme for projects HPC17TRLGW IMA-WFires “Integrated Modelling for Assessment of Potential Pollution Regional Atmospheric Transport as Result of Accidental Wildfires” and HPC17ENAVF MALAWE “Integrated Modelling and Analysis of Influence of Land Cover Changes on Regional Weather Conditions/ Patterns”. The CSC - IT Center for Science Computing (Finland) is acknowledged for computational resources.

How to cite: Savenets, M., Pysarenko, L., Krakovska, S., and Mahura, A.: Integrated modelling for assessment the influence of aerosol feedbacks on a regional scale as a result of accidental wildfires and land cover changes in Ukraine, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4792, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4792, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Valeriya Ovcharuk et al.

The Erasmus+ ClimEd (2021-2023; http://climed.network; “Multilevel Local, Nation- and Regionwide Education and Training in Climate Services, Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation”) project is aimed at the development of competency-based curricula for continuous comprehensive training of specialists in the field of climate services and additional education in climate change for decision-makers, experts in climate-dependent economic sectors, and public.

Some of the goals and objectives of the project are closely related to the Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX; www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex), and especially with multi-disciplinary, -scale and -component study climate change at resolving major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability issues.

The ClimEd Trainings (http://climed.network/events/climed-trainings), in total 7, will be carried out during the project and will be focused on training the faculty/ teaching/ research staff and postgraduates at the ClimEd partner institutions and collaborating organizations in advanced educational and information-and-communication technologies for building a flexible multi-level integrated practice-based education system in the field of Climate Services, Climate Change  Adaptation and Mitigation.

Due to COVID pandemic situation, the originally planned face-to-face first trainings (in Estonia, Ukraine, and Finland) were converted into online training. Such online trainings were divided into 3 consecutive blocks: (i) online lecturing, (ii) home-work-assignments (HWAs) as group projects with established internal communication between the member of the groups and with an option of zoom-consulting during remote work, and (iii) final oral presentations (projects’ defenses) of HWAs with evaluation and feedback, discussions, and awarding certificates (corresponding to ECTS credits) with achieved learning outcomes. The majority of HWAs are based on the ClimEd main themes linking climate change vs. agriculture, energy, technical design and construction, urban economy, water management, health care; although other themes of interest can be selected by groups. Trainings also include questionnaires distributed among participants: evaluation of the training, and evaluation of own learning outcomes. Technically, the Moodle system, Zoom-hosting, e-evaluations, etc. are actively utilized in such trainings. All materials of the trainings are always publicly accessible online at the ClimEd project website as well as long-term stored at the Moodle system for each training.

The outcomes/ summaries – including the lecture topics and learning outcomes, information resources, themes of group projects, feedbacks and training results, established network-community of the training participants (trainees and lecturers and teachers of HWAs) – of the online training approach will be presented for the ClimEd Trainings. Summaries are available for: 1st training “Competence-Based Approach to Curriculum Development for Climate Education”; 19 Apr – 12 May 2021; http://climed.network/events/climed-trainings/climed-training-1-online); 2nd – “Adaptation of the Competency Framework for Climate Services to conditions of Ukraine” (29 Jun – 26 Aug 2021; http://climed.network/events/climed-trainings/climed-training-2-online); 3rd – “Digital tools and datasets for climate change education” (26 Oct – 12 Nov 2021; http://climed.network/events/climed-trainings/climed-training-3-online); and 4thDeveloping learning courses in climate services considering needs of different users” (7–11 February 2022; http://climed.network/events/climed-trainings/climed-training-4).

How to cite: Ovcharuk, V., Mahura, A., Kryvomaz, T., Aguilar, E., Olanо, J., Khomenko, I., Shabliy, O., Sogacheva, L., Zhou, P., Mäkelä, A., Krakovska, S., Lappalainen, H., Stepanenko, S., Lauri, K., Riuttanen, L., Tyuryakov, S., and Bashmakova, I.: CLIMATE-ORIENTED TRAININGS in the field of Climate Services, Climate CHANGE ADAPTATION and Mitigation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4895, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4895, 2022.

Characteristics of heat exchange between land surface and atmosphere according observations at Research Station “Ice Base Cape Baranova” in 2013 - 2021
Alexander Makshtas et al.
Boris D. Belan et al.

Aerosols play an important role in radiation processes in the atmosphere, as well as they have a significant impact on global and regional air quality. The process of the atmospheric nanoparticle formation starts from in situ conversion of condensable vapors. Then, the freshly formed nanometer-size clusters begin to grow due to the condensation of nucleating vapours on them and a self-coagulation as well, thus reaching the optically active size ranges. The relative contribution of the above mechanisms can be estimated by the chemical composition of size-segregated particles. Here, we present preliminary results of the analysis of aerosol samples characterizing the inorganic chemical composition of particles ranging from a few nm to 10 mm. The sampling was performed at Fonovaya Observatory (West Siberia) in October 2021 by means of the Model 125R Nano-MOUDI Impactor.

The analysis showed that in the lowest size range (<10 nm), only five ions were detected: SO42-, Cl-, K+, Na+, H+. The growth of the nucleation mode particles to the size range of 60-100 nm was accompanied by increasing content of SO42-, Na+, H+ ions to 50, 37 and 13%, respectively, suggesting the condensation of H2SO4 vapours or the coagulation of particles contained mainly Na2SO4. A content of ammonium ions (NH4+) appeared to be significant only in the accumulation mode size range (0.1-1.0 mm). Nitrates (NO3-) were detected mainly in the Aitken mode particles and then their contribution increases in accumulation and coarse mode ranges.

This work was supported by the RFBR grant No. 19-05-50024 (Microparticles in the atmosphere: formation and transformation in the atmospheric surface layer and in the free troposphere, radiation effects and impact on public health).

How to cite: Belan, B. D., Simonenkov, D., Arshinov, M., Belan, S., Golobokova, L., Davydov, D., Ivlev, G., Kozlov, A., Kozlov, A., Onischuk, N., Sklyadneva, T., Tolmachev, G., Fofonov, A., and Khodzher, T.: Peculiarities of the chemical composition of size-segregated atmospheric aerosols sampled at Fonovaya Observatory, West Siberia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3537, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3537, 2022.

Mikhail Yu. Arshinov et al.

The stratosphere and troposphere are the main layers that define a significant part of the atmospheric processes of our planet. They are demarcated by the tropopause - a layer that has a stable stratification and makes it difficult to exchange air between them. As a consequence, the composition of the air differs slightly in the stratosphere and troposphere. However, the tropopause is not a fully material impermeable surface and therefore the exchange of impurities between both layers occurs. Under the conditions of a changing climate, the composition of the air in the troposphere has also noticeably changed. Therefore, it is important to study the processes of air exchange between the troposphere and stratosphere in a warming climate, especially if we take into account that one of the proposed geoengineering methods assumes to affect climate-forming factors by means of spraying sulphate particles into the stratosphere.

Here, we present the results of airborne measurements of the size distribution and chemical composition of aerosols carried out at the tropopause level and in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) using the 'Optik' Tu-134 aircraft laboratory as a research platform. For the analysis, we have chosen 14 flight segments when the aircraft crossed the tropopause, which level was determined by the temperature gradient (up to 2°C/ km). All the selected profiles of atmospheric constituents were measured over the Russian Arctic seas or coastal areas, since the tropopause in the northern latitudes is much lower than in the middle ones.

Significant differences in the elemental composition of aerosol particles were revealed in the UTLS. Si was dominated in the composition of stratospheric particles, and Fe or Al in the tropospheric ones. The ionic composition of the LS aerosols was predominantly represented by sulfates (SO42-), while tropospheric ones by a group of different ions.

The particle number size distributions (PNSD) in both UT and LS were dominated by the Aitken mode (20-50 nm). At the same time, there were some differences in PNSD – in the stratosphere, the distribution curve was shifted towards larger sizes that suggests the older age of particles measured there. It is also important to note that the nucleation mode particles (3–20 nm) were also detected during some flights in the lower stratosphere. This indicates that, despite the low humidity and the very low content of ammonia here, the processes of the new particle formation (NPF) in the stratosphere were taking place. Taking into account the dominance of SO42- in the ionic composition, one can be assumed that sulfuric acid played a dominant role in the lower stratospheric NPF.

This work was supported by the grant of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (Agreement No 075-15-2021-934).

How to cite: Arshinov, M. Yu., Antokhin, P., Arshinova, V., Belan, B., Belan, S., Golobokova, L., Davydov, D., Ivlev, G., Kozlov, A., Kozlov, A., Rasskazchikova, T., Simonenkov, D., Tolmachev, G., and Fofonov, A.: Differences in the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3737, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3737, 2022.

Wed, 25 May, 17:00–18:30

Virtual presentation
Sung-Bin Park and Sang Seo Park

Anomalous or extreme climate conditions in high northern latitudes are likely to become more frequent and intense for the last several years. Based on the eddy covariance flux data from 2013-2017 collected at a boreal forest and peatland in central Siberia, net CO2 uptake in spring 2015 was the highest compared with the 2013-2017 average because of the anomalous surface warming over the region > 60N. This enhanced spring net CO2 uptake may be associated with more snowfall amount in winter. However, an increased spring net CO2 uptake may be compensated with summertime net CO2 uptake due to the relatively cool summer surface temperature in 2015. Spring 2020 in central Siberia has experienced even more substantial surface warming than in spring 2015, probably associated with excessive spring snowmelt. This suggests that further investigations in the effects of anomalous seasonal climate and snow conditions on net CO2 uptake, photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration are necessary to better understand annual CO2 balance. To characterize carbon fluxes and underlying mechanisms related to climate condition and snow characteristics from 2012-2020, we analyzed upscaling carbon flux dataset based on a random forest model by Jing et al. (2021), satellite-based net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (i.e., Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L4 data), snow characteristics (e.g. freeze-thaw cycle, snow depth), and reanalysis dataset. We will focus on seasonal CO2 uptake, photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration under the anomalous temperature and snowfall/snowmelt conditions, then discuss factors regulating annual net CO2 uptake capacity in boreal forests and peatlands in central Siberia.

How to cite: Park, S.-B. and Park, S. S.: Changes in net CO2 uptake, photosynthesis, and ecosystem respiration and their relationships with climate and snow characteristics in central Siberia, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3425, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3425, 2022.

On-site presentation
Sophie Wittig et al.

The Arctic is particularly sensitive to global warming and the effects of the increasing temperatures can already be detected in this region by occurring events such as thawing permafrost and decreasing Arctic sea ice area. One of the possible consequences is the risk of enhanced regional greenhouse gas emissions such as methane (CH4) due to the exposure of large terrestrial carbon pools or subsea permafrost which have previously been shielded by ice and frozen soil.

Various sources, both natural and anthropogenic, are presently emitting methane in the Arctic. Natural sources include wetlands and other freshwater biomes, as well as the ocean and biomass burning. Despite the relatively small population in this region, CH4 emissions due to human activities are also significant. The main anthropogenic sources are the extraction and distribution of fossil fuels in the Arctic nations and, to a lesser extent, livestock activities and waste management.

However, assessing the amount of CH4 emissions in the Arctic and their contribution to the global budget still remains challenging due to the difficulties in carrying out accurate measurements in such remote areas. Besides, high variations in the spatial distribution of methane sources and a poor understanding of the effects of ongoing changes in carbon decomposition, vegetation and hydrology also complicate the assessment.

Therefore, the aim of this work is to reduce uncertainties on methane emissions in high northern latitudes. In order to achieve that, an inverse modeling approach has been implemented by using observational data sets of CH4 concentrations obtained at 42 surface stations located in different Arctic regions for the period from 2008 to 2019, the atmospheric transport model FLEXPART, as well as available bottom-up estimates of methane emissions provided by process-based surface models and CH4 emission inventories. The results have been analysed with regards to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations, spatial differences and trends over the period of study.

How to cite: Wittig, S., Berchet, A., Paris, J.-D., Saunois, M., Arshinov, M., Machida, T., Sasakawa, M., Worthy, D., and Pison, I.: Evaluating methane emissions between 2008 and 2019 in high northern latitudes by using inverse modeling, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4297, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4297, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Joonas Kollo et al.

The SMEAR Estonia is an important step towards understanding how forest ecosystem and the atmosphere affect each other. The station provides long-term continuously measured eddy-covariance CO2 flux data. Parameters such as wind speed and direction are not controllable by human, but forest management methods are, thus the flux tower helps to assess how human activities affect forest ecosystem-atmosphere relationship as well as to assess natural processes. In this study, the footprint for years 2015–2020 was calculated with Kljun model according to wind speed and direction. Measurements were taken from 30 m and 70 m height. Data was obtained by continuous high frequency (10 Hz) measurements by the eddy-covariance method and averaged over half-hour intervals. Results showed that the footprint area measured from 30 m over six-year period differed only by 5%. From 70 m this difference was only 1.2% over the six-year period. Average area for both 30 m and 70 m FFP was 61,5 ha and 4029,7 ha respectively. The growing stock of the forest was affected by forest management, but in general it grew by 3,2% for 30 m FFP. The main tree species growing in the area of the footprint are Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Silver birch (Betula pendula) with some small amount of aspen and alder species. The dominant wind directions were ranging from west to south in 2015–2017 and in 2018–2020 from south-west to south-east. The footprint area is affected mainly by wind speed and direction, and by forest management activities like harvesting and clear-cutting. Such measurements help to understand how human activity and natural processes affect formation of the footprint.

How to cite: Kollo, J., Padari, A., Krasnova, A., Kangur, A., and Noe, S.: Linking the measurement data of the substance flows of the SMEAR Estonia measuring station with the place of growth, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4365, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4365, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Steffen M. Noe et al.

Rapid changes due to climate warming in the Arctic environment call for action and the implementation of sustainable measures in a scientific data driven policy process.


Assessment of available data on the Arctic and Antarctic regions and their linkage to Essential Variables (EV) and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) allow the implementation of scientific data driven policies and socio-economic activities mechanisms towards sustainable development. In the iCUPE (Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments; www.atm.helsinki.fi/icupe) project (Petäjä et al., 2020), multiscale datasets ranging from in-situ small local scale to remotes sensing satellite data operating on global scale were generated and made public.

iCUPE developed further several data pilot applications that included flow of different data sources towards public services. Inclusion of indigenous knowledge and feedback by data users were tested (Noe et al., 2021)


The iCUPE datasets were used to evaluate impacts on social-economical activities in the Arctic and are well-linked to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as #3, 4, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 17. In particular, DSs (on aerosols, including black carbon, physico-chemical properties and spatio-temporal variability based on ground-based, satellite and unmanned aerial systems observations) show links to atmospheric pollution and climate change. These DSs allow to evaluate impact on environment and population (especially, indigenous people) health for the Arctic States as well as long-range transport/ deposition of pollution to remote populated regions. Hence, the evaluation results will be useful for the climate adaptation and changing social lifestyle and economic activities in Arctic regions. The DSs (on atmospheric mercury observations) show links to atmospheric pollution and deposition on underlying surfaces, and hence, the contamination of seas/lands. This helps to estimate impact on fishery and reindeer herding economical activities, and hence, impact on environment and population health through food chains. The DSs (emerging organic contaminants in water) show a situation on contamination of seas, which is important for evaluating the impacts on fishery industry, and hence, impact on population health and well-being through food chains and prosperity. The DSs (on emerging organic and anthropogenic contaminants in snow) underline contamination of food supply for reindeers, which is valuable for evaluating impact on economic activities and style of the life of indigenous people as well as impact on population health through food chains. The DSs (time series of lake size changes in Northeast Greenland) show changes in water resources availability, which can influence the hydropower plans of the Greenlandic government to foster economic development in Greenland.



Petaja, T., et al. (2020): Overview: Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments (iCUPE) - concept and initial results. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 20, 14, p. 8551-8592.

Noe S.M. et al. (2021): Arctic observations and Sustainable Development Goals - Contributions and examples from ERA-PLANET iCUPE data. Environmental Science and Policy, Manuscript in Review.

How to cite: Noe, S. M., Mahura, A., Petäjä, T., Tabakova, K., Lappalainen, H. K., and Leaders, D.: Assessing the impact of observation networks and data mobility for their impacts on socio-economical activities in the Arctic – Perspectives by the iCUPE project, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4945, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4945, 2022.

On-site presentation
Clement Narbaud et al.

A more accurate characterization of the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the vulnerable Arctic environment is required to better predict climate change. A large-scale aircraft campaign took place in September 2020 focusing on Siberian coast. CH4 and CO2 were measured in situ during the campaign and form the core of the study. Measured ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) are used here as tracers. Compared to the reference (i.e., the seasonal value at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, US), median CH4 mixing ratios are fairly higher (1890-1969 ppb vs 1887 ppb) while CO2 mixing ratios from all flights are lower (408.09-411.50 ppm vs 411.52 ppm). We also report on 3 case studies. Our analysis suggests that during the campaign the European part of Russia’s Arctic and Western Siberia were subject to long-range transport of polluted air masses, while the East mainly was under the influence of local emission of greenhouse gases. The relative contributions of anthropogenic and natural sources of CH4 in Siberia are simulated using the Lagrangian model FLEXPART in order to identify dominant sources in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. In western terrestrial flights, air masses composition is influenced by from wetlands and anthropogenic activities (waste management, the fossil fuel industry and to a lesser extent the agricultural sector), while in the East, emissions are dominated by freshwaters, wetlands, and the oceans, with an ambiguous contribution from likely anthropogenic sources related to fossil fuels. Our results generally highlight the importance of the contribution form freshwater and oceans emissions and, combined with the large uncertainties associated with them, suggest that the emission from these aquatic sources should receive more attention in Siberia.

How to cite: Narbaud, C., Paris, J.-D., Berchet, A., Wittig, S., Saunois, M., Nédelec, P., Belan, B., Arshinov, M., Davydov, D., Fofonov, A., and Kozlov, A.: Measurement report: Disentangling methane and other trace gases sources and transport across the Russian Arctic from aircraft measurements, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8036, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8036, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Sergiy Stepanenko et al.

In view of unprecedented negative changes threatening safe existence of the humankind and taking place in all parts of the Earth system, decisive and rapid measures are needed to reduce vulnerability, which had been manifested in the Sustainable Development Goals which are intended to be achieved by the year 2030.

Despite numerous efforts in the field of combating climate and environmental change on planet Earth, negative trends leading to degradation of the planet persist to grow, which can be explained by many reasons such as lack of awareness of the threat that the humankind faces in the business community and the society, lack of flexibility in the response of the countries’ economies to the challenges of the time, weak ties between science, education and the economy.

In order to eliminate the above-mentioned causes and provide for society's transition to sustainable development, it is necessary to lay the foundations for a new type of education that would make it possible to arrive at continuous education in the field of Earth Sciences based on the principles of environmental law and sustainable development, with interdisciplinary interaction and cooperation of science, education and economics taken account of. The training should use a variety of modern educational tools to reach the widest range of target groups and promote climate and environmental literacy in the society.

Since the existing education system is not able to respond in a timely manner to the new challenges of the time, introduction of a new type of education requires setting up a completely new educational structure - a center of excellence - which, due to a number of advantages, compared to traditional university structures, meets modern demands in the field of education and being a multi-level, dynamic and flexible system, could effeciently be adapted to the pressing needs of the time to provide the entire range of educational servicesm, long-term to short-term courses, up to micro-learning, for various target groups and is able to function under the conditions of dominant inter- and transdisciplinarity.

Under the new conditions that the world has been facing since 2020, in order to facilitate access to educational resources, development of networked on-line study programmes, with involvement of world-class experts in work on educational courses and mutual learning, which significantly expands dissemination and tools for societal impact, the center of excellence is to feature a virtual scientific-and-educational IT platform. The Center of Excellence is to play the role of a consultuncy board, which will provide for transfer of knowledge in a targeted manner, in the form that is the most agreeable for the end-user and therefore is the most attractive to entice a wide range of stakeholders.

Due to the unique geographical location, as well as the accumulated scientific and educational potential in the field of Earth Sciences, Odessa State Environmental University proposes setting up a Center of Excellence in the Field of Earth Sciences and offers cooperation to all interested parties.

How to cite: Stepanenko, S., Khomenko, I., Shabliy, O., Ovcharuk, V., and Semenova, I.: Application of New Approaches in Teaching Earth Sciences, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12701, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12701, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Olga Stupishina and Elena Golovina

The presented work evolves the study of the Space Weather state before and during the macrosynoptic processes movements in North Atlantic and Eurasia extratropical latitudes. The atmosphere circulation types – E-type (east transport), W-type (west transport) and C-type (meridional transport) – were investigated by their periods of the conservation:  (5-7) days which corresponds to the Natural Synoptic Period (NSP) in Europe region and the Long Period (LP) which endured more than 10 days.

The investigation time interval: 1.01.2007 – 1.01.2014. That corresponds to: the Solar Activity (SA) 23-d cycle's fall branch, the SA minimum, the rise branch of the 24-th SA cycle, the maximum of 24-th SA cycle.

Space Weather parameters were: global  variations of SA parameters; daily characteristics of the SA flare component in various bands of the electromagnetic spectrum; variations of daily statistics of Interplanetary Space characteristics in the near-Earth space; variations of daily statistics of Geomagnetic Field characteristics.


1. LP-E-type occurs 56% of all LP when LP-W-type occurs 36% and LP-C-type occurs 8%.

2. The concrete Space Weather parameters which behavior differences the moments of LP-beginnings from the moments of NSP-beginnings for the E-type circulation (here we are presenting only results for the most frequent macrosynoptic type) are follows:

  • All daily indexes of SA global variations – the integral solar radioflux on the wavelength of 10.7cm, the solar spot number, the summarized spot area on the solar disk, the number of new Active Regions on the solar disk.
  • The daily statistics (maximum, mean, range, standard deviation) of α-particle fluxes with the energy of 4-10 MeV. 
  • The daily statistics (maximum, mean, range, standard deviation) of electron fluxes of energy that is greater than 2 MeV. 
  • The daily statistics (maximum, mean, range, standard deviation) of the intensity of the whole magnetic field vector in the near-Earth space.
  • The daily statistics (maximum, mean, range, standard deviation) of the intensity of the geomagnetic field that was measured at different terrestrial latitudes.

3. The most prominent events we can see in the behavior of the α-particle fluxes and in the behavior of the whole magnetic field vector in the near-Earth space those went on the background of the significant changing of global SA-indexes.

We suppose the complex impact the mentioned above Space Weather characteristics on the terrestrial atmosphere.

Results may be useful for the forecast of atmosphere response to the space impact.

How to cite: Stupishina, O. and Golovina, E.: The Space Weather events those accompany the long-lived macrosynoptic processes, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5714, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5714, 2022.

Pavel Smirnov and Andrey Tolstikov

Last year, in Russia there was started a new government long-term initiative, that aims reduction for Russian greenhouse gas emissions by up to 70 percent compared to the 1990 level in less than next 10 years (by 2030).

On the one hand such ambitious goal to includes massive technical and industrial modernization and other hand – supposed to provide valid, verified and globally recognized scientific data on the runoff and emission of greenhouse gases from ecosystems all around Russia. Thus, a large-scale program for the development of carbon stations has started with running of carbon polygons, which should combine both research-methodological and educational functions, and, eventually, contribute to the achievement of the specified state objective. The educational function of the polygons includes training personnel with interdisciplinary competencies to work on "carbon" topics, including the highest qualifications.

Starting to design and equip the first running polygon in the Tyumen region (by University of Tyumen), we initially stated concept of creating an ecological and climatic transect across the whole of Russia from north to south. The general idea is connect the new carbon polygon near Tyumen with carbon monitor infrastructure in proposed polygons and stations in Tobolsk and Ishim, Khanty-Mansiysk (Mukhrino) and Yamalo-Nenets (Labytnangi)Autonomous Disctricts. With potential sites in partners, that University of Tyumen has in Central Asian republics, there are prospect to continue this meridional transect further to the south. And in this case, we have the prospect of getting a global-scale monitoring system in the center of Eurasia across all natural zones from north to south, that provide massive raw data set for global observation system.

How to cite: Smirnov, P. and Tolstikov, A.: West-Siberian meridional carbon transect: the concept, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6436, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6436, 2022.

Marina Chichaeva et al.

Cities are prone to air pollution caused by emissions associated with population activities such as road transport, industry, heating, and residential sector. The concentration and chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) is of particular importance as the parameter of air quality measurements. Concerning impact on urban air quality and hazardous health effects accompanied by the capacity for long-range atmospheric transport, polyromantic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are numbered among priority pollutants in the national and international regulatory activities. Seasonal dynamics and toxicity of PM-bound PAHs in a northern context attract the particular attention.

Sampling and PM10-bound PAHs characterization were carried out in urban background of Moscow megacity, the largest as well as the northernmost megacity in Europe. Composition of 16 PAHs which are numbered in the EPA list of ‘Priority Pollutants’, were considered for three periods: spring (from mid-April to the end of May, when a positive average daily temperature is set in Moscow), autumn (from the end of September to the end of November), and winter (from early December to mid-January, when the average daily temperature reliably drops below zero). The sum of 16 PAHs had ranged over the observation period from 0.4 to 10 ng/m3, with increase of the median concentration from spring and autumn to winter due to the maximum anticyclonic atmospheric circulation and emissions from thermal power plants in winter as well as the transition of PAH from PM to the gas phase with an increase of the temperature in spring. Average PAH toxic equivalent (TEQs) were higher in winter and autumn than those in summer and spring. Increased concentrations for BaA, BaP,BgP, Cry, BbF due to high wind speeds indicate a distant source and a long-range transfer of pollutants. While the presence of maxima of concentrations at medium or low wind speeds can serve as an indication of the proximity of sources, as well as the weakening of atmospheric circulation, which leads to accumulation of pollutants (ANT, PYR, BbF, DiBaA, BLU, PHE, BkF) in the measurement area.

Based on the statistical processing, high (> 0.75) positive correlations for all individual PAHs were obtained in autumn and winter. This indicates the high stability and the absence of significant transformation of PAH due to physical and photochemical reactions. At higher temperature in spring compared to autumn-winter, low correlations for phenanthrene was observed due to evaporation of the lowest molecular weight PAHs could proceed more intensively on the aerosol surface.

This work is supported by the Russian Government, through its grant number 14.W03.31.0002.



How to cite: Chichaeva, M., Zavgorodnyaya, Y., Popovicheva, O., Semenova, A., and Kasimov, N.: Seasonal dynamics and toxicity of PM-bound PAHs in northernmost European megacity., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6967, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6967, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Igor B. Konovalov et al.

Siberian wildfires inject into the atmosphere huge amounts of aerosol particles, part of which are transported into the Arctic. Once in the Arctic, biomass burning (BB) aerosol can contribute to the radiative balance and affect the climate processes in different ways, including the absorption and scattering of the solar radiation, changes in the albedo of the ice/snow surface cover, modification of the optical properties of clouds. However, quantitative knowledge of the role of Siberian BB aerosol in the Arctic is deficient, reflecting major uncertainties in available model representations of its emissions, chemical composition, and optical properties.

In this study, the CHIMERE v2020 chemistry transport model (https://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere/) coupled with the WRF meteorological model was used to examine the effects of aerosol-radiation interactions (the direct aerosol radiative effect and the associated semi-direct effects) due to the transport of BB plumes from Siberia into the Eastern Arctic. The analysis features the use of satellite and in situ observations to constrain the BB aerosol sources and optical properties. Furthermore, the simulations brought together new model representations of the optical properties and aging of the organic component of Siberian BB aerosol [1,2], which were also constrained by satellite and ground-based observations, and recent findings from aerosol chamber experiments [3]. The study focuses on the radiative effects associated with the strong fires that occurred in Siberia in July 2016.

It is found that weakly-absorbing Siberian BB aerosol exerted a strong cooling effect in the near-surface layer of the atmosphere and at the top of the atmosphere over large areas on land in the Eastern Arctic. However, the aerosol radiative effects over the ocean were found to be of a mixed character, which is partly due to semi-direct effects triggered by the aerosol absorbing components (black carbon and brown carbon). Overall, our study results indicate that direct and semi-direct radiative effects caused by Siberian BB aerosol constitute a significant part of the evolving natural baseline of the Arctic radiative budget and need to be taken into accounts in analyses and predictions of the Arctic amplification of climate change.    

The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under grant agreement No. 19-77-20109 (modeling light-absorbing aerosol components), RFBR and CNRS according to the research project № 21-55-15009 (modeling light-scattering aerosol components).


  • Konovalov, I.B., Golovushkin, N.A., Beekmann, M., and Andreae, M.O.: Insights into the aging of biomass burning aerosol from satellite observations and 3D atmospheric modeling: evolution of the aerosol optical properties in Siberian wildfire plumes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-357-2021, 2021.
  • Konovalov, I.B., Golovushkin, N.A., Beekmann, M. Panchenko, M.V.; Andreae, M.O.: Inferring the absorption properties of organic aerosol in biomass burning plumes from remote optical observations, Atmos. Meas. Tech., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-6647-2021, 2021.
  • Kozlov, V.S., Konovalov I.B., Panchenko, M.V., Uzhegov, V.N., et al.: Dynamics of aerosol absorption characteristics in smoke combustion of forest biomass burning at the Large Aerosol Chamber at the stages of generation and aging in time. Proc. SPIE, https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2603496, 2021.

How to cite: Konovalov, I. B., Golovushkin, N. A., Beekmann, M., Siour, G., Zhuravleva, T. B., Nasrtdinov, I. M., Uzhegov, V. N., Kuznetsova, I. N., Nakhaev, M. I., Turquety, S., and Couvidat, F.: Elucidating the impact of Siberian biomass burning aerosol on the radiative balance in the Arctic: model analysis constrained by observations , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7090, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7090, 2022.

Georgy Nerobelov et al.

Alteration of the Earth's radiation balance due to the rise of the content of the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas СО2 in the atmosphere leads to the changes of the planet's climate. It is known that megacities contribute approximately 70% to the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions playing a critical role in the climate changes. Several methods of emission estimation are being developed to control commitments undertaken by different countries on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. One of such methods - inverse modelling - combines accurate observations of the increase of gas` content, a priori anthropogenic emissions and numerical modelling of atmospheric transport to define gas` sources and correct emission data used in the simulation. Several studies demonstrated that the inverse modelling of CO2 anthropogenic emissions highly depends on the modelling of CO2 transport in the atmosphere. Therefore a careful validation of such models must be carried out before CO2 emissions estimation by the inverse modelling. In the current research we studied capabilities of numerical weather prediction and chemistry dynamic model WRF-Chem to simulate CO2 transport on the territory of Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using observations of near-ground and total CO2 content. 

How to cite: Nerobelov, G., Timofeyev, Y., Foka, S., Hatakka, J., Virolainen, Y., and Smyshlyaev, S.: Validation and adaptation of WRF-Chem numerical model to simulate CO2 transport in Saint-Petersburg, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9011, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9011, 2022.

Yury Timofeyev et al.

Needs in obtaining independent and high-quality information on anthropogenic emissions of important for climate and ecology gases led to the development of spectroscopic (ground-based and satellite) methods of the emission determination. This challenge can be reduced to two sequential inverse problems - the inverse problem of atmospheric optics and atmospheric transport. Here we studied the merits and disadvantages of differential IR methods for the emissions estimation. Also we investigated the main factors determining their errors such as:

  • Quality and number of the observations of spatio-temporal distribution of gases studied
  • Capabilities of the numerical models to simulate atmospheric transport
  • Spatial and temporal resolutions of emissions estimated
  • etc.

In the current study integral anthropogenic CO2 emissions of Saint-Petersburg were determined using observation data of the city`s anthropogenic contribution to the gas content. In addition we implemented a new approach of inverse problem solution which was based on a priori CO2 emission data and scale coefficients applied only to the city`s areas covered by the observations. Integral anthropogenic CO2 emissions obtained were in a range from approximately 52 to 72 Mt/year. These emissions are significantly higher than inventory-based estimates which constitute ⁓30 Mt/year. Nevertheless, the minimal value of the range (~52 Mt/year) is lower by ~21% than emissions which we calculated earlier also using observations (~65 Mt/year).

How to cite: Timofeyev, Y., Nerobelov, G., and Poberovskiy, A.: Analysis of Saint-Petersburg`s CO2 anthropogenic emissions estimation by differential spectroscopy method, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9018, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9018, 2022.

Olga Popovicheva et al.

Long-range transport to the Arctic carries tracers of anthropogenic activities and wildfires, among other aerosol constituents. Black carbon (BC) shows a contribution of fossil fuels combustion and natural biomass burning (BB) to the Arctic atmosphere chemistry and aerosol pollution.  Fossil sources mostly prevail during winter-spring season while BB sources dominate during low BC concentration periods in summer. Spectral dependence of the light absorption described by the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) is used to differentiate between different aerosol types (BC, BrC) and indicate the impact of BB.

Long-term airborne observations of BC in Northern Siberia have revealed a strong impact of forest fires in summer (Kozlov et al., 2016; Paris et al., 2009;Popovicheva et al., 2020). Particulate brown carbon (BrC) has been reported to be emitted by intense wildfires and measured in plumes transported over two days  (Forrister et al., 2015). Due to the mixing with background aerosol and ageing processes, the air masses influenced by BB events is expected to have increased AAE as compared to the BC produced by fossil fuel.

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO) is located in the Far North of Western Siberia, more than 50% of its area takes place beyond the Polar Circle. On August 4 of 2021, strong smoke enveloped Salehard, Noyabrsk, Tarko-Sale and other municipalities of the district. The air mass transportation from the southeastern directions brought smoke from forest fires located on the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). According to the operational data of “Avialesokhrana”, 105 wildfires were active over an area of ​​about 1.2 million hectares there.

A dense haze covered a city Nadym, located around 100 km to the south the Polar Circle, as well. Smoke sampling performed from 5 to 12 August 2021 was correlated with the haze day duration and showed the variation of AAE up to 2.5, the feature of strong BB impact. Unprecedented high BC is observed on Bely island taking place in the Kara sea, above Yamal Peninsula. Unprecedented high pollution for the Siberian Arctic was recorded by research polar aerosol station “Island Bely”. An extreme increase of BC concentration was observed on August 5, reaching 4000 ng per m3. The Arctic summer background was exceeded 40 times!  It was found 8 times higher than the highest arctic haze concentrations observed in December 2019. AAE approached 1.4, very high value for area such remoted from wildfires (more than 1000 km). It indicated the long-range transportation from Yakutia of aged air masses influenced by BB events. Basic research in the Siberian Arctic is supported by Russia Geographical Society №17-2021И.


How to cite: Popovicheva, O., Kobelev, V., Chichaeva, M., and Kasimov, N.: Unprecedented wildfire smoke in the Siberian Arctic in August 2021 , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9775, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9775, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Irina Fedorova et al.

Climate change determines processes in Arctic lakes. Over the past ten years, within the framework of various projects, different types of Yamal lakes have been studied: deep glacio-karst Neytinskiye lakes in the central part of the peninsula and shallow thermokarst lakes formed due to melting of buried ice in the Yarkuta river valley; more than 50 lakes have been studied in total.  

The studied lakes differed markedly in transparency (2-7 м), water bottom temperature (6-18°C), electrical conductivity (97-465 μS/cm), turbidity (6.73-34.3 FTU), chromaticity (9.8-46.7°), dissolved oxygen (5-10 mg/l), depending on their location, depth, the influence of melting buried ice, and local conditions. The concentration of biogenic elements (NO3, NO2, PO4, and SiO2) was insignificant, reaching a maximum of 2.63 mg/L, 0.07 mg/L, 1.05 mg/L, and 3.82 mg/L, correspondingly. pH values ​varied within a small range - 6.1-7.68, showing the neutral lakes environment.

For Yamal lakes, the values​ of stable oxygen isotopes δ18O corresponded to the lateral inflow of water into the lakes. Increase in the water and organic substances supply from the permafrost active layer, precipitation and groundwater can be predicted due to the observed climate warming.

The ecosystems of Yamala lakes poor in organic matter (OM) in general, but OM increase may occur due to hydroclimatic factors, permafrost degradation and additional OM flux to objects while intensification of eutrophication processes. However, the photodegradation and high accumulation exchange capacity of bottom lacustrine sediments indicates the presence significant relaxation period of ecosystem under external influences.

Decrease in ice thickness by 15-20 cm in 2040-2051 relative to the values of 2009-2021 is predicted for two thermokarst lakes according to RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. The lake bottom water temperature will increase by 1-2°C both during open water and under ice. The thermal balance of the bottom sediments and taliks will be positive, and increase of volume of talik will be contributed.

Three main paleoclimatic periods of sedimentation over the past 500 years have been identified based on the dating of lacustrine deposits and the description of their geochemical and spore-pollen features (the rate of sedimentation in the Neytinskiye lakes is an average of 0.8 mm/year, method for determining 210Pb): (1) 500-450 years - active sedimentation with high values of K, V, Ba; (2) 450-100 years - uniform sedimentation with low element’s concentrations, which can be interpreted as a general cooling and an erosion decrease on the lakes catchment; (3) 60-100 years - is a warmer period with waterlogging and increase of Mn and Fe and biogenic elements entry from the catchment due to the degradation of permafrost. A peak of Al and Zn can be interpreted as a result of anthropogenic impact.

Geochemical analyses were carried out on the equipment of the SPBU Resource centers "Magnetic Resonance Research Methods" and "Methods for the Analysis of Substance Composition." Research on the Yamal lakes will be continued with the support of the Russian Ministry of Science and Higher Education, agreement No. 075-15-2021-139

How to cite: Fedorova, I., Zdorovennov, R., Zdorovennova, G., and Bobrov, N.: Geochemical processes in Yamal peninsula lakes under climate variation, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10293, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10293, 2022.

Fidel Pankratov et al.

In 2001, the mercury analyzer was installed at Amderma (69.450 N, 61.390 E, 49 m above sea level; Yugor Peninsula) in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Russia) to carry out continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury vapor concentration in the atmospheric surface layer. The data analysis demonstrated that the atmospheric mercury depletion evens (AMDEs, concentration < 1 ng m-3) are observed on a rather limited territory, i.e. along the coast of the Arctic seas. During observational period (2001-2015), the analyzer was placed at three locations at different distances (8.9 km – 2001-2004, 2.5 km – 2005-2010, and 200 m - 2010-2015) from the Kara Sea coast.

For the AMDEs cases, during winters of 2001-2004 the air temperature was in range from -150С to -310С and relative humidity – 68-84%. The dominated atmospheric transport for these cases was mainly observed from the N-N-W direction. The number AMDEs relative to all measurements was about 0.2%. For 2005-2010, the temperature ranged from -10С to -370С and relative humidity – 74-83%. The atmospheric transport – from the E-E-N direction. The number AMDEs relative to all measurements was 2.7%. For 2010-2013, the temperature varied from -220С to -270С and relative humidity – 75-87%. The atmospheric transport – mainly from the S-S-W direction. The number AMDEs relative to all measurements was 26.9%, showing substantial 10-fold increase of AMDEs compared with the previous period. As a result, all cases correspond to range of air temperatures from -10C to -370C and relative humidity of 68-87% for entire monitoring period considered.

For selected considered episode (29-30 Mar 2002), the air temperature varied from -260C to -310C, and when it decreased to the minimum, the effect of mercury depletion was detected with the lowest concentration (0.39 ng m-3). For episode (29 Feb - 1 Mar 2007), the temperature was also decreasing from -160C to -370C, and at reaching the minimum, the mercury concentration was also the lowest (0.12 ng m-3). Moreover, in Dec 2006, for the first time, a significant number of AMDEs cases (23 events) was recorded during the polar night. In Feb 2010 the longer duration (up to 40 hours) AMDEs episodes were observed compared with Jan (up to 15 hours).

Note that all AMDEs are generally observed at lower air temperatures and relative humidity values with respect to the average values.

How to cite: Pankratov, F., Mahura, A., Masloboev, V., and Popov, V.: Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events: Assessment Impact of Meteorological Parameters in the Arctic Winter, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10368, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10368, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Nataly Chubarova et al.

Urban aerosol pollution has a significant effect on solar irradiance and meteorological characteristics. Using the two online integrated meteorology – atmospheric composition modelling systems  -  COSMO-Ru2-ART (Consortium for Small-scale Modeling – Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) and Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment – High Resolution Limited Area Model) ) taking into account urbanization effects, we studied the effects of aerosol pollution and its impact on radiative and meteorological characteristics of the atmosphere with focus on the Moscow megacity region (Russia). For the models’ runs, the initial and boundary conditions from the ICON-COSMO-Ru7 and ERA-5  as well as the CAMS redistributed inventory emissions were utilized.

In order to account for the absorbing aerosol properties of the Moscow urban atmosphere black carbon (BC) emissions were applied according to the ECLIPSE emission inventory, which demonstrated a satisfactory agreement in BC/PM10 ratio with experimental data in Moscow.  A series of models’ simulations over an area of 300x300 km  was performed with a 2 km horizontal grid step with the effects of urban areas (building effects/ BEP, anthropogenic heat fluxes/ AHF in Enviro-HIRLAM and TERRA_URB scheme in COSMO-Ru2-ART), and without their consideration. The estimates of urban aerosol content were made for typical conditions in April-May 2019 and during spring of 2020, when lowered anthropogenic emissions were observed in the Moscow region due to strict lockdown conditions of COVID-19 pandemic.

In this study, we accounted for the changes in emissions for the lockdown situation according to the recommendations (Le Quéré et al., 2020), which were mainly in agreement with the official statements.  The estimates of aerosol urban properties were tested against the difference between the AERONET measurements obtained in the Moscow megacity and in a relatively clean region at Zvenigorod Scientific Station of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences.  The quality of surface aerosol estimation was verified using the MosEcoMonitoring Agency dataset. The variability of concentration of different aerosol species at ground level and changes in aerosol optical depth and its absorbing properties in the total atmospheric column are discussed.  The various aerosol radiative effects - direct, semidirect and indirect - and the influence of aerosol on selected meteorological characteristics (such as temperature, humidity, cloud cover, etc.) are analyzed. The features of spatio-temporal changes in urban aerosol fields and their effects on meteorology in conditions of elevated and lower emissions of pollutants in typical and lockdown conditions are investigated. 

This study is partially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant number 075-15-2021-574) and the Finnish Flagship “Atmosphere and Climate Competence Center” (Academy of Finland grant 337549).  This research was performed according to the Development Programme of the Interdisciplinary Scientific and Educational School of MSU “Future Planet and Global Environmental Change”. The CSC - IT Center for Science Computing (Finland), is acknowledged for computational resources.


Le Quéré C. et all (2020): Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 forced confinement, Nat. Clim. Change, 10, 647–653.


How to cite: Chubarova, N., Mahura, A., Androsova, E., Kirsanov, A., Varentsov, M., Poliukhov, A., Paasonen, P., and Rivin, G.: Aerosol pollution in the Moscow megacity environment and its impact on radiative and meteorological properties of the atmosphere, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3947, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3947, 2022.

Virtual presentation
Alexander Varentsov et al.

This work is devoted to the development of a numerical model of the transport of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer, as well as its application in idealized cases and studies with a realistic urban surface. Air quality and the distribution of pollutants is one of the major urban problems, and measurement methods can be limited in the complex geometry of the city, which motivates the development of modeling methods.

The model uses the Lagrangian approach to modeling, taking into account the size and mass of each particle, the possibility of aerosol deposition and their collision with various surfaces. The particle motion equation takes into account various parameters of the atmosphere: wind direction and speed, turbulent characteristics. The influence of turbulence on the motion of aerosols can be taken into account in the model using several parametrizations – stochastic Lagrangian models of zero and first order. It is possible to simulate a huge number of particles at the same time. The algorithm is implemented in the C++ programming language.

The model can be used as a separate tool that requires information about the state of the atmosphere as input data - these can be measurement data, results of hydrodynamic modeling, analytically given values. Numerous experiments have been carried out in this mode. The model was verified on exact analytical solutions for light and heavy particles, on the data of field measurements of the concentrations of dust and sand particles. Calculations were carried out in conditions of idealized geometry of buildings (urban canyons) and in conditions of real urban development. For this, input data from RANS and LES models were used.

The developed algorithm can also be used as a module connected to hydrodynamic models. In this mode, it is possible to use the input data on atmospheric parameters with the maximum resolution in time and space. By connecting to the LES model, high-resolution simulations of aerosol transport in realistic urban environments were performed.

The work is supported by Russian Ministry of Science and Higher Education, agreement No. 075-15-2021-574 (megagrant leaded by M.Kulmala in Moscow State University, WP4), No. 075-15-2019-1621, by RSF grant 21-17-00249, by RFBR grants 20-05-00776 and 19-05-50110.

How to cite: Varentsov, A., Stepanenko, V., and Mortikov, E.: Numerical simulation of the Lagrangian transport of aerosols of various genesis in urban conditions, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12818, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12818, 2022.

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