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ST3.4

EDI
Open session on ionosphere and thermosphere

The Earth's ionosphere embedded in the thermosphere is a coupled system influenced by solar and magnetospheric processes from above, as well as by upward propagating disturbances from lower atmospheric layers. This open session is suitable for contributions on all aspects of ionospheric and thermospheric physics and ionospheric effects on HF propagation. The session invites theoretical studies, (multi)instrumental ground-based and satellite observations, simulations and modelling studies that address the dynamics of the ionosphere, concerning transient events, plasma waves and irregularities, as well as large-scale dynamics and long-term variations. Contributions dealing with magnetospheric forcing are sought in the areas of ionospheric disturbances caused by CME- and CIR/CH HSS-related magnetic storms and substorms. New results that focus on investigation of latitudinal, seasonal and hemispherical effects of the storms and substorms on ionosphere are especially appreciated. Also ionospheric effects from other sources, such as solar terminator, solar eclipse, seismic activity or human-made explosions, are welcome. As for lower atmosphere forcing, contributions are sought that focus on atmospheric waves, wave-wave and wave-mean flow interactions, atmospheric electricity and electrodynamical coupling processes.

Convener: Dalia Buresova | Co-conveners: Alex Chartier, Ivan PakhotinECSECS, Jade ReidyECSECS, Daniel BillettECSECS, John Bosco Habarulema, Ioanna Tsagouri
Presentations
| Tue, 24 May, 17:00–18:30 (CEST)
 
Room L1, Wed, 25 May, 08:30–10:00 (CEST)
 
Room L1

Tue, 24 May, 17:00–18:30

Chairpersons: Daniel Billett, Ivan Pakhotin, Jade Reidy

17:00–17:05
Introduction

17:05–17:11
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EGU22-481
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Pelin Erdemir et al.

Ionospheric Joule heating occurs as a result of the geomagnetic storms which are driven by ICMEs in the solar wind.  High speed ICMEs and the strong and enduring southward IMFs are the key parameters in occurrence of the geomagnetic storms.  In this study, we investigate the dependence of the Joule heating on the ICME parameters. We obtained Joule heating using SWMF-BATSRUS MHD model for the selected geomagnetic storms.  ICME magnetic field and plasma parameters that cause these storms were sorted and the threshold levels for each ICME parameter were determined in order to find the most influential parameter that controls the Joule heating.   A clear separation exists in the Joule heating that corresponds to the sheath and magnetic cloud regions of the ICME.  Our preliminary results indicate that the Joule heating higher than 600 GW occurs when the southward IMF Bz last more than a day within the magnetic cloud arrives at the Earth despite the corresponding speed and the density, thus the pressure, are lower. While the velocity is higher, the fact that the density is much lower within the cloud results in lower Joule heating.  In this presentation, three cases will be compared and discussed in order to advance our understanding on the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

How to cite: Erdemir, P., Kaymaz, Z., Kalafatoglu Eyiguler, E. C., and Rastaetter, L.: Dependence of Joule heating on the ICME parameters, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-481, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-481, 2022.

17:11–17:17
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EGU22-12282
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On-site presentation
Daniel Whiter and David Price

The aurora can have strong electric fields and currents associated with it, which deposit a significant amount of energy in the neutral upper atmosphere through heating. Such heating must be included in global atmospheric models used to study thermospheric dynamics, coupling between the atmospheric layers, climate, and drag on spacecraft and space debris in low Earth orbit. However, the heating rate is poorly quantified, and often spatial structure is not well represented. Heating is typically estimated by measuring the ionospheric electric field using radar, which is then combined with measurements or estimates of the neutral wind velocity and Pedersen conductivity to calculate a Joule heating rate. However, such measurements of the electric field necessarily neglect small scale spatial and temporal variability through their relatively coarse resolution and averaging. The Joule heating rate is proportional to the square of the electric field, and therefore the spatial and temporal averaging can lead to a significant underestimate of the Joule heating rate. As a step towards improving estimates of neutral heating, we have developed a technique to invert spectrographic measurements of aurora to observe the thermospheric neutral temperature altitude profile at high temporal resolution. Application of the technique to an auroral event shows substantial Joule heating adjacent to an arc where the E-field must be strong, as well as heating embedded within an auroral curl, which we associate with an intense field-aligned current.

How to cite: Whiter, D. and Price, D.: Optical observations of thermospheric neutral temperature in aurora, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12282, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12282, 2022.

17:17–17:27
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EGU22-2360
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ECS
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solicited
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On-site presentation
Gemma Bower et al.

Transpolar arcs (TPAs) are auroral features that occur polewards of the main auroral oval, at latitudes where auroras are less common, suggesting that the magnetosphere has acquired a complicated magnetic topology. They are primarily a northward interplanetary magnetic field auroral phenomenon, and their formation and evolution have no single explanation that is unanimously agreed upon. An automated detection algorithm has been developed to detect the occurrence of TPAs in UV images captured by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) instrument onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, in order to further study their occurrence. Via this detection algorithm TPAs are identified as a peak in the average radiance intensity above 12.5° colatitude, in two or more of the wavelengths/bands sensed by SSUSI.

Using the detection algorithm on observations from the years 2010 to 2016, over 5000 images containing TPAs are identified. The occurrence of these TPA images suggest a seasonal dependence, with more TPAs observed in the winter hemisphere. The orbital plane of DMSP has been investigated as a possible explanation of the dependences in the results of the detection algorithm. It has been found that each DMSP spacecraft has a different bias due to its orbit. For the spacecraft of interest (F16, F17 and F18) this leads to a preferential observation of the northern hemisphere, with the detection algorithm missing TPAs in the southern hemisphere around 01 - 06 UT. No seasonal bias has been found for these spacecraft.

We also discover that the majority of TPAs occur in the dawn sector of the polar cap, which is unexpected in current TPA models. Comparing with previous statistical surveys, we note that the dawn-dusk asymmetry has been present but has not gained significant attention.  We suggest that field-aligned current polarity may play a role in the observed asymmetry.

We discuss the ramifications of these findings in terms of proposed TPA generation mechanisms and suggest reasons for the seasonal dependence including it being a reflection of probability of seeing TPAs due to visibility.

How to cite: Bower, G., Milan, S., Paxton, L., and Imber, S.: Statistics of transpolar arcs identified by an automated detection algorithm, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2360, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2360, 2022.

17:27–17:33
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EGU22-3759
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On-site presentation
Stefan Bender et al.

Solar, auroral, and radiation belt electrons enter the atmosphere at polar regions leading to ionization and affecting its chemistry. Climate models with interactive chemistry in the upper atmosphere, such as WACCM-X or EDITh, usually parametrize this ionization and calculate the related changes in chemistry based on satellite particle measurements. Precise measurements of the particle and energy influx into the upper atmosphere are difficult because they vary substantially in location and time. Widely used particle data are derived from the POES and GOES satellite measurements which provide electron and proton spectra. These satellites provide in-situ measurements of the particle populations at the satellite altitude, but require interpolation and modelling to infer the actual input into the upper atmosphere.

Here we use the electron energy and flux data products from the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) instruments on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. This formation of currently three operating satellites observes both auroral zones in the far UV from (115--180 nm) with a 3000 km wide swath and 10 x 10 km (nadir) pixel resolution during each orbit. From the N2 LBH emissions, the precipitating electron energies and fluxes are inferred in the range from 2 keV to 20 keV. We use these observed electron energies and fluxes to calculate auroral ionization rates in the lower thermosphere (≈ 90–150 km), which have been validated previously against ground-based electron density measurements from EISCAT. We present an empirical model of these ionization rates derived for the entire satellite operating time and sorted according to magnetic local time and geomagnetic latitude and longitude. The model is based on geomagnetic and solar flux indices, and a sophisticated noise model is used to account for residual noise correlations. The model will be particularly targeted for use in climate models that include the upper atmosphere, such as the aforementioned WACCM-X or EDITh models. Further applications include the derived conductances in the auroral region, as well as modelling and forecasting E-region disturbances related to Space Weather.

How to cite: Bender, S., Espy, P., and Paxton, L.: Empirical modelling of SSUSI derived auroral ionization rates, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3759, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3759, 2022.

17:33–17:39
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EGU22-11881
Mathieu Barthelemy et al.

Space weather is a system science in the sense that it includes a chain of complex phenomena coming from the Sun and going to the Earth mainly through the magnetosphere. Added to this, the effects on the Earth infrastructures and their vulnerability should be taken into account. All this chain is too poorly described to allow accurate nowcasting and forecasting of the space weather events and of their effects on Earth. In this chain, the upper atmosphere as well as its interface with the magnetosphere require improvements in their description.

Precipitations of auroral electrons along magnetic lines lead to auroras, which are one of the most striking manifestations of space weather. These phenomena characterize the relationship of the magnetosphere and the upper atmosphere, and their intensity and localization indicate the state of near-Earth space. The energy release in the region of the auroral oval, associated with precipitation of auroral electrons, is controlled by the solar wind parameters and is one of the important reasons leading to changes in space weather in the polar magnetosphere and ionosphere.

In this frame, one of the main gaps in both data and modelling is the monitoring of the precipitation of low-energy (0.02 − 30keV ) particles in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere, especially electrons which are key contributors to ionospheric currents.

Numerous satellites observed the polar lights both in the UV and visible, however AMICal Sat is the first cubesat to be dedicated to the observation of the optical emissions of the auroras. It contains a sparse RGB imager and has been launched on board the VV16 flight, September 3rd 2020. It will be followed by a spectrometer ATISE planned to be launched in 2023.

In this presentation, we propose to present the first results of AMICal Sat, the data processing to extract the intensity of each lines and thus deduce the electron fluxes. Plans for ATISE developments and ground based tests will also be detailed.

How to cite: Barthelemy, M., Kalegaev, V., and Robert, E.: AMICal Sat, ATISE : From imagery to spectro-imagery for auroral studies, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11881, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11881, 2022.

17:39–17:45
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EGU22-6396
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On-site presentation
Jone Peter Reistad et al.

When IMF By is dominant, which is the typical situation, a highly vortical convection pattern is seen inside the dayside polar cap in the summer hemisphere. In the winter hemisphere, however, the convection is mainly from noon to midnight with little vorticity inside the polar cap. Combined with the vastly different ionospheric conductance between summer and winter due to solar EUV irradiance, these differences in convection cause large summer/winter differences in the Birkeland currents in the dayside polar cap. Hence, the joule heating rates will be very different in the dayside polar cap between summer and winter during the IMF By dominant periods, which is typically associated with weak geomagnetic activity inside the auroral oval. This presentation will focus on the hemispheric differences in e.g. joule heating during such conditions, which will be quantified using the newly developed LOcal Mapping of Polar ionospheric Electrodynamics (Lompe) data assimilation technique. The Lompe technique is similar to the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique, but allows the electrodynamics to be described only in a limited region to reflect the observational coverage. The prescribed conductance will be provided from UV imaging of the aurora (in addition to EUV), allowing also the energy from precipitation to be estimated. While existing empirical models [e.g. Weimer 2005, doi:10.1029/2004JA010884] capture some aspects of the hemispheric asymmetries, this presentation will focus on how recent advances in data assimilation techniques allows us to quantify these asymmetries on an event basis, showing how these typical conditions can lead to vastly different energy input into the two hemispheres.

How to cite: Reistad, J. P., Laundal, K. M., Ohma, A., and Hatch, S.: Energy input in the dayside polar cap during IMF By dominated conditions: Summer vs. Winter, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6396, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6396, 2022.

17:45–17:51
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EGU22-9261
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Virtual presentation
Jennifer A. Carter et al.

We track the progression of height-integrated conductances over the course of an average substorm in a narrow local time sector of the nightside polar cap. These conductances are calculated from the mean energy flux and energy flux of precipitation, as estimated from a ratio of auroral emissions of the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield long and short band obtained by multiple polar region crossings of the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program F16, F17, and F18 spacecraft. Contributing auroral emission data span 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2017. Both Pedersen and Hall conductances are considered, as well as the influence of the magnetic latitude of substorm onset. Substorm onset times and magnitudes are provided by the SuperMAG network and SOPHIE substorm lists. We compare superimposed epoch ordered conductances with similarly averaged field aligned currents from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). Shortly before onset, conductances increase in a low latitude region, before an increase in conductance seen at all latitudes at the time of onset. The energy flux is shown to peak quickly after substorm onset, followed by mean energy. The conductances, energy flux, and mean energy are ordered by magnetic latitude of substorm onset, so that the lowest onset latitudes correspond to the highest value of any given parameter. Conductances recover quicker to pre-substorm levels for those substorms with higher onset magnetic latitudes.

 

How to cite: Carter, J. A., Milan, S., Lester, M., Forsyth, C., Paxton, L., Gjerloev, J., and Anderson, B.: Height-integrated polar cap conductances during an average substorm, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9261, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9261, 2022.

17:51–17:57
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EGU22-9989
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Joseph Mayes et al.

Following the dynamic processes in the Earth-Sun system such as magnetic reconnection a significant amount of energy is transferred inwards from the outer magnetosphere by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. One of the ways this energy is dissipated is through energetic particle precipitation. In order to understand this energy transfer it is important that we are able to quantify the evolution of energetic particles as they precipitate. This study investigates the nature of the precipitating electron energy spectrum, whether the particles are accelerated and where the energy is absorbed in the atmosphere.

By inverting EISCAT incoherent scatter radar (ISR) data to produce a modelled incident energetic electron flux entering the upper atmosphere as detected by the radar and comparing those with the flux observed by satellites such as DMSP and Arase as they traverse flux tubes conjugate to the radar, we have been able to investigate both the magnitude of acceleration of energetic particles as well as how different energies are accelerated as they move down flux tubes. We will use these modelled fluxes to determine the level of field aligned acceleration of the energetic particles and the altitude profile of energy deposition.

How to cite: Mayes, J., Wright, D., and Yeoman, T.: Tracing the evolution of energetic particle fluxes using radar inversion techniques  , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9989, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9989, 2022.

17:57–18:03
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EGU22-8283
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Spencer Hatch et al.

The ionosphere-thermosphere research community has clearly expressed a need for improved, observation-based estimates of key ionosphere-thermosphere parameters such as Joule dissipation, Poynting flux, and ionospheric conductances. While global estimates of these key parameters can be obtained by combining existing empirical models, one often encounters some frustrating sources of uncertainty: the models to be combined often use different input parameters, different assumptions about hemispheric symmetry, and/or different coordinate systems. We eliminate these sources of uncertainty by deriving a new model of high-latitude ionospheric potential that can be combined with the Average Magnetic Field and Polar Current System (AMPS) model to obtain empirical estimates of Joule dissipation, Poynting flux, and ionospheric conductances. These models treat the two hemispheres independently, are derived in a mutually consistent fashion, and are based entirely on electric and magnetic field measurements made by the Swarm satellites.

How to cite: Hatch, S., Laundal, K. M., Reistad, J. P., and Ohma, A.: A consistently derived set of empirical models for high-latitude electrodynamics, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8283, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8283, 2022.

18:03–18:09
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EGU22-12298
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Elliott Day et al.

Modelling of Joule heating is key to understanding the impact of space weather on the neutral atmosphere. One of the most commonly used models in the scientific community is the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM). The modelled plasma and neutral wind velocities are key parameters for Joule heating estimates, however there is limited validation of TIEGCM’s performance at mid-latitudes. In this study we use the Blackstone Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) and the Michigan North American Thermosphere Ionosphere Observing Network (NATION) Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) to obtain the local nightside plasma and neutral velocities at ~40 degrees geographic latitude during a 10 hour interval on 15 July 2014 and compare our observations with the outputs from TIEGCM. We find that TIEGCM lacks the variability seen in our observations while overestimating quiet time plasma velocities as well as neutral wind velocities during both quiet and active times compared to our observations. We also find that TIEGCM agrees with the observed neutral wind flow direction but disagrees with the observed plasma flow direction. We note that a better representation of the mid-latitude neutral winds and ion drifts is required in order to improve the accuracy of the modelled Joule heating rate. 

How to cite: Day, E., Grocott, A., Walach, M., Wild, J., Lu, G., Ruohoniemi, M., and Makela, J.: Mid-latitude comparisons of ion and neutral velocity observations with general circulation model outputs., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12298, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12298, 2022.

18:09–18:15
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EGU22-8135
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Lauren Orr et al.

Modern high latitude ionospheric electric field models have been developed to incorporate advances in data availability, however the use of older spacecraft-based models is still widespread.  AENeAS (Advanced Ensemble electron density [Ne] Assimilation System) is a physics-based, thermosphere-ionosphere, coupled, assimilative model, which makes possible thermospheric forecasts. Currently AENeAS uses the Heelis and Weimer electric field spacecraft climatology models but it is possible a more recent electric field model could improve its functionality.  Two such models are calculated using line-of-sight velocity measurements from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN): the Thomas and Shepherd model (TS18), and the Time-Variable Ionospheric Electric Field model (TiVIE) . Here we compare the electric field models during the September 2017 storm, covering a range of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. We explore the relationships between the IMF conditions and model output parameters such as transpolar voltage, the polar cap size and the lower latitude boundary. We find the spacecraft-based model electric potential and field parameters to have a significantly higher magnitude than the SuperDARN-based models. We will discuss the similarities and differences in topology and magnitude for each model.

How to cite: Orr, L., Grocott, A., Walach, M., Lam, M. M., Freeman, M., Chisham, G., and Shore, R.: High latitude ionospheric electric field models comparison, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8135, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8135, 2022.

18:15–18:21
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EGU22-5686
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Joshua Dreyer et al.

We present observations of a new type of small-scale aurora-like feature, which is further referred to as fragmented aurora-like emission(s) (FAEs).

They seem to appear in two categories – randomly occurring individual FAEs and wave-like structures with regular spacing between FAEs alongside auroral arcs. FAEs show horizontal sizes typically below 20 km, a lack of field-aligned emission extent, and short lifetimes of less than a minute. Emissions were observed at the 557.7 nm line of atomic oxygen and at 673.0 nm (N2; first positive band system) but not at the 427.8 nm emission of N2+ or the 777.4 nm line of atomic oxygen. This suggests an upper limit to the energy that can be produced by the generating mechanism. Their lack of field-aligned extent and 777.4 nm emissions indicates a different generation mechanism than for aurorae, which are caused by particle precipitation. Possible sources are Farley–Buneman instabilities or electrostatic ion cyclotron waves.

How to cite: Dreyer, J., Partamies, N., Whiter, D., Ellingsen, P. G., Baddeley, L., and Buchert, S. C.: Characteristics of Fragmented Aurora-like Emissions (FAEs), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5686, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5686, 2022.

18:21–18:27
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EGU22-1322
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Eldho Midhun Babu et al.

Energetic Electron Precipitation (EEP) from the plasma sheet and the radiation belts ionize the polar lower thermosphere and mesosphere. EEP increase the production of NOx and HOx, which will catalytically destroy stratospheric ozone, an important element of atmospheric dynamics. Therefore, measurement of the latitudinal extent of the precipitation boundaries is important in quantifying atmospheric effects of Sun-Earth interaction.
This study uses measurements by Medium Energy Proton Electron Detector (MEPED) of six NOAA/POES and EUMETSAT/METOP satellites from 2004 to 2014 to determine the latitudinal boundaries of EEP and its variability with geomagnetic activity and solar wind drivers. Variation of the boundaries with respect to different particle energies and magnetic local time is studied. Regression analyses are applied to determine the best predictor variable based on solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. The highest correlation was found for pressure-corrected Dst index through linear regression. Although, the model has an error estimate of ±2.2° cgmlat and exhibits a solar cycle bias, it performs well in predicting the precipitation boundaries. The result will be a key element for constructing a model of EEP variability to be applied in atmosphere climate models.

How to cite: Babu, E. M., Tyssøy, H. N., Smith-Johnsen, C., Maliniemi, V., Salice, J. A., and Millan, R.: Determining latitudinal extent of energetic electron precipitation  using MEPED on-board NOAA POES, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1322, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1322, 2022.

18:27–18:30
Summary of the Session

Wed, 25 May, 08:30–10:00

Chairpersons: Dalia Buresova, John Bosco Habarulema, Ioanna Tsagouri

08:30–08:32
Introduction

08:32–08:38
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EGU22-6535
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Daniel Billett and Kathryn McWilliams

The ESA Swarm constellation of satellites have been measuring the ionospheric electric and perturbation magnetic fields since 2013. Recently, the entire dataset of Swarm electric fields has been reprocessed into a 16Hz data product, allowing the analysis of ionospheric dynamics on sub-kilometre scales.

In combination with the on-board magnetometer data, the Swarm satellites can use the electric field measurements to determine the total electromagnetic energy into and out of the ionosphere, the Poynting flux. The 16Hz dataset allows for the capturing of much smaller scale sizes than previously considered, thus presenting the opportunity to study how much Poynting flux is missed when utilizing data across typically monitored scales (usually on the order of tens to hundreds of kilometres).

We present a statistical analysis of the Swarm A and B derived 16Hz Poynting flux, utilising various low-pass filters on the electric and magnetic field data to simulate smoothing the data to larger scale sizes. We find that by increasing the width of the low-pass filters, measured Poynting flux decreases significantly and quickly. Our results show that there is an over 50% underestimation in the total hemisphere integrated Poynting flux when observing it on scale sizes of a few hundred kilometres, compared to the raw 16Hz measurements that correspond to scales of around 0.5km. Under certain circumstances, as much as a 10% underestimation in the Poynting flux is observed by increasing scale size to only 5km. These results stress the importance observing small-scale electric and magnetic fields, as they may account for a large proportion of the ionosphere-thermosphere energy budget.

How to cite: Billett, D. and McWilliams, K.: High-resolution Poynting fluxes derived from the ESA Swarm mission: How much are we underestimating?, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6535, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6535, 2022.

08:38–08:48
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EGU22-4262
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solicited
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On-site presentation
Paul Prikryl et al.

Solar wind Alfvén waves [1] coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) have been associated with high-intensity long-duration continuous auroral electrojet activity [2] and shown to modulate ionospheric convection in the cusp generating polar cap patches and atmospheric gravity waves [3,4]. The Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radars (RISR-C and RISR-N) [5] are well suited for observing the ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events and subsequent polar patch formation in the cusp.  During minor to moderate geomagnetic storms caused by corotating interaction regions at the leading edge of solar wind high speed streams polar patches were observed as they convected over the RISR, and the Canadian High-Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) ionosondes and GPS receivers [6]. The patches were generated by the MIT coupling of Alfvén waves in the upstream solar wind. The coupling process modulated the ionospheric convection and the intensity of ionospheric currents, including auroral electrojets. The horizontal equivalent ionospheric currents and vertical current amplitudes are estimated from the ground-based magnetometer data using an inversion technique [7].  Pulses of ionospheric currents that are a source of Joule heating in the lower thermosphere launched atmospheric gravity waves causing traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) propagating equatorward. TIDs were observed in the SuperDARN HF radar ground scatter [8], in the detrended GPS TEC maps, and in one case, in the altitude profiles of ionospheric electron densities observed by the Poker Flat ISR [9].

[1] Belcher, JW, Davis, L, Jr. 1971. J. Geophys. Res. 76, 3534–3563.

[2] Tsurutani, BT, Gonzalez, WD. 1987. Planet. Space Sci. 35(4), 405–412.

[3] Prikryl, P, et al., 1999. Ann. Geophys. 17, 463–489.

[4] Prikryl, P, et al., 2005. Ann. Geophys. 23, 401–417.

[5] Gillies RG, et al., 2016. Radio Sci., 51(10):1645-1659.

[6] Jayachandran, PT, et al., 2009. Radio Sci., 44, RS0A03.

[7] Weygand, JM, et al., 2011. J. Geophys. Res. 116, A03305.

[8] Chisham, G., et al., 2007. Surv. Geophys. 28, 33–109.

[9] Heinselman, CJ, Nicolls, MJ, 2008. Radio Sci., 43, RS5013.

How to cite: Prikryl, P., Gillies, R. G., Chakraborty, S., Themens, D. R., Thomas, E. G., and Weygand, J. M.: Multi-instrument observations of polar cap patches and traveling ionospheric disturbances during geomagnetic storms, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4262, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4262, 2022.

08:48–08:54
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EGU22-1660
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ECS
Julian Eisenbeis et al.

The IRAP Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model (IPIM) is an ionospheric model which describes the transport equations of ionospheric plasma species along magnetic closed field lines. The development of a new operational version of IPIM as part of the EUHFORIA project to monitor and forecast space weather conditions and hazards includes using in-situ solar wind observations from the OMNI data set, ionospheric radar data of plasma motions from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), and precipitation data from the Ovation model, as inputs to the model. A new conductivity module has also been developed for help in the simulation of geomagnetically induced currents based on a simplified version of IPIM. This model uses the photochemical module of IPIM in place of the fluid module and the full kinetic module, so that inter-hemispheric transport of suprathermal electrons is accounted for in the ion production term. As the main contribution to the conductivities comes from the lower ionosphere (typically below 150km) where the chemistry dominates, neglecting the field-aligned transport contribution in the fluid module does not alter significantly the conductivities. Based on the conductivities, the neutral wind and the electric field, ionospheric horizontal currents are computed. The ionospheric currents are used as an input for the Biot and Savart module to compute the resulting magnetic perturbations at the ground. We present the first results from this version which explores the ionosphere's response to different conditions in different regions in mid and high latitudes.

How to cite: Eisenbeis, J., Blelly, P.-L., Thomas, S., and Marchaudon, A.: Modeling horizontal currents and magnetic ground perturbations with the IPIM model, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1660, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1660, 2022.

08:54–09:00
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EGU22-4829
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Rosie Hodnett et al.

Ionospheric Alfvén Resonances (IAR) are observed in the British Geological Survey's ground based induction coil magnetometer data at Eskdalemuir. IAR are caused when Alfvén waves are partially reflected at boundaries of changing plasma density in the ionosphere. At the boundaries, the Alfvén velocity reaches a maximum and the IAR occurs in the cavity which is in the F region. In the data we observed some unusual variations in the frequency of the harmonics and so created a model to investigate this. We have modelled the harmonic frequency separation of the IAR using the magnetic field strength from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field, and the electron density and ion composition from the International Reference Ionosphere. We found the Alfvén velocity and calculated the time of flight for the Alfvén wave to travel up and down the cavity, and hence we found the frequency. The model shows that the frequency is highest in the winter, and often shows a double peak each day in the winter months. We then compared the model of the harmonic frequency separations to the harmonic frequency separations from the data, determined from an autocorrelation analysis of the observed spectra.

How to cite: Hodnett, R., Yeoman, T., Wright, D., and Beggan, C.: The Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator observed at Eskdalemuir magnetic observatory  , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4829, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4829, 2022.

09:00–09:06
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EGU22-1593
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On-site presentation
Jan Laštovička

To model ionospheric climate and to study its long-term changes and trends we need solar activity proxies, because long and homogeneous data series of solar ionizing flux are not available. To select the optimum solar activity proxies, we use yearly average foF2 data of eleven ionospheric stations from middle and low/equatorial latitudes of four continents over 1976-2014 and six solar activity proxies, F10.7, sunspot numbers, F30, Mg II, He II and solar Lyman-α flux. For middle latitudes and higher low latitudes down to about 20-24oN, Mg II and F30 are found to be the optimum solar proxies, not the usually used F10.7 or sunspot numbers. At lower and particularly equatorial latitudes the situation is different; the optimum proxy for Jicamarca is sunspot number and He II, and for Vanimo He II. Solar activity describes 99% of the total variance of yearly foF2 at midlatitudes and its dependence on solar proxies is highly linear. Long-term trends in foF2 are found to depend to some extent on solar proxy used

How to cite: Laštovička, J.: Different optimum solar activity proxies for foF2 at middle and low latitudes, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1593, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1593, 2022.

09:06–09:12
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EGU22-6101
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Sovit Khadka and Andrew Gerrard

Due to the special geometry of the electric and magnetic fields at the equator, the vertical ExB drift removes plasma from the geomagnetic equator via an equatorial plasma fountain. This process forms the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) by creating the crests at/around 20° latitudes on either side of the geomagnetic equator. It has been reported that symmetric/asymmetric structure and latitudinal extent of the EIAs are affected by the electric fields and thermospheric neutral winds. We investigate the long-term trends in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and associated phenomena over the South American low-latitude region. These long-term analyses help to develop/update the empirical model of various ionospheric parameters. The EIA features are analyzed using the ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS)-total electron content (TEC) data. We also compare the TEC in EIA obtained from the latest International Reference Model (IRI) model with the observed GPS-TEC data for seasons, different levels of solar activity, and geomagnetic conditions. Finally, We discuss the mechanisms, drivers, and impacts of the EIAs in upper atmospheric electrodynamics. 

How to cite: Khadka, S. and Gerrard, A.: Long-Term Trends in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6101, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6101, 2022.

09:12–09:18
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EGU22-453
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Ezgi Gülay et al.

We study the ionospheric and ground signatures of geomagnetic activity over Marmara region in Turkey. In our study, we use ionospheric electron density measurements using Dynasonde measured in ITU Campus, Istanbul (41°N, 29°E), magnetic field measurements in İznik (40.43oN, 29.72oE) and magnetotelluric measurements of magnetic field and electric field in Bozcaada (37.5°N, 106°E). Combined measurements are utilized in search of the geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and their connection to ionospheric variations for the selected geomagnetic storms. Variations in dB/dt which are used to refer to the GICs are determined and quantified. Accompanying variations in electron density and electric field will be revealed and the deviations from the quiet day will be presented. Although strong GICs are mostly reported to exist over high latitudes, depicted based on the dB/dt variations, we show that they are also present over mid-latitudes where Turkey is located at. At the meeting, we will present our first results based on our measurements and discuss the physical causes of the variations observed.

How to cite: Gülay, E., Kaymaz, Z., and Kalafatoğlu Eyigüler, E. C.: Investigation of Ionospheric and Ground Level Signatures of Geomagnetic Storms over Turkey, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-453, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-453, 2022.

09:18–09:24
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EGU22-2324
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Attila Buzás et al.

As a result of the enhanced X-ray and EUV fluxes following large solar flares, the electron density of the ionospheric layers increases. Furthermore, it causes higher absorption or even partial or total fade-out of the emitted radio waves which can be measured with ionosondes and Digisondes by studying the amplitude of the reflected electromagnetic waves [1,2].

In the present study, the ionospheric response to large solar flares has been investigated using the ionosonde data measured at the Průhonice (Czech Republic, 49.98° N, 14.55° E) and San Vito (Italy, 40.6° N, 17.8° E) stations in September 2017, the most active solar period of Solar Cycle 24. A novel method [3]  to calculate and investigate the absorption of radio waves propagating in the ionosphere is used to determine the absorption during large solar flare events (M and X class). Subsequently, the absorption data are compared with the indicators derived from the fmin method (fmin, the minimum frequency is considered as a qualitative proxy for the “nondeviative” radio wave absorption occurring in the D-layer). Total and partial radio fade-out and increased values (with 2–5 MHz) of the fmin parameter were experienced during and after the intense solar flares (> M3). Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured by the Digisondes was used as well to quantify and characterize the fade-out events and the ionospheric absorption. The combination of these three methods may prove to be an efficient approach to monitor the ionospheric response to solar flares.

[1] Sripathi, S., Balachandran, N., Veenadhari, B., Singh, R., and Emperumal, K.: Response of the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere to an intense X-class solar flare (X7/2B) as observed on 09 August 2011, J. Geophys. Res.-Space, 118, 2648–2659, 2013.

[2] Barta, V., Sátori, G., Berényi, K. A., Kis, Á., and Williams, E. (2019). Effects of solar flares on the ionosphere as shown by the dynamics of ionograms recorded in Europe and South Africa. Annales Geophysicae, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 747-761

[3] Sales, G. S., 2009, HF absorption measurements using routine digisonde data, Conference material, XII. International Digisonde Forum, University of Massachusetts

How to cite: Buzás, A., Burešová, D., Kouba, D., Mošna, Z., and Barta, V.: Investigating the variation of the ionospheric absorption during large solar flares based on modern Digisonde data, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2324, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2324, 2022.

09:24–09:30
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EGU22-2309
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Kitti Alexandra Berényi et al.

The complex analysis of the largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle #24 maximum is our main aim in this study. Our focus is on the ionosphere, more precisely on the ionospheric F2-layer. The selected storm intervals are: 11-17 November 2012 (Kpmax=6.33, Dstmin=-108 nT ), 16-23 March 2013 (Kpmax= 6.67, Dstmin=-132 nT ),  and 16-25 March 2015 (Kpmax=7.67, Dstmin=-228 nT). Data from 6 digisonde (DPS4D) stations, ground GNSS TEC and Swarm satellite constellation have been used for the investigation.

This study is the next step to validate our previous results discussed in Berényi et al. (2018). We analyse the meridional behaviour of the geomagnetic disturbance caused ionospheric storms to understand and interpret the evolution of the caused effects.

The storm from 2012 is a no-positive phase (NPP) storm, but the 2013 and 2015 storms show the pattern of the regular positive phase (RPP) storm type (after the categorization by Mendillo and Narvaez, 2010). In all three cases a significant increase in electron density of the F2-layer can be observed at dawn/early morning (around 6:00 UT, 07:00 LT).  We compared also the digisonde foF2 parameter with the GNSS TEC data. Besides, we observed the fade-out of the ionospheric layers at night during the geomagnetically disturbed time periods of storm 2012 and 2015. In order to determine whether this fade-out is connected to the L-shell location of the plasmapause we analysed the Swarm observations (for the storm 2015), too.

Berényi, K. A., Barta, V., & Kis. (2018). Midlatitude ionospheric F2-layer response to eruptive solar events-caused geomagnetic disturbances over Hungary during the maximum of the solar cycle 24: A case study. Advances in Space Research, 61(5), 1230–1243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2017.12.021

Mendillo, M., & Narvaez, C. (2010). Ionospheric storms at geophysically-equivalent sites - Part 2: Local time storm patterns for sub-auroral ionospheres. Annales Geophysicae, 28(7), 1449–1462. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-28-1449-2010

How to cite: Berényi, K. A., Kis, Á., Heilig, B., Urbář, J., and Barta, V.: Comprehensive analysis of the response of the ionospheric F2-layer to the largest geomagnetic storms from solar cycle #24 over Europe, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2309, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2309, 2022.

09:30–09:36
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EGU22-5482
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Virtual presentation
Antoni Segarra et al.

This work proposes a new indirect method to detect solar flares based on the effects that produce in the signal of the radio waves reflected from the ionosphere as observed by a digisonde. Analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured from ionograms for Ebro Observatory ionospheric station made possible to estimate a daily pattern of the SNR under no flare conditions and to detect absorption effects in the SNR caused under flare conditions. The method allows to characterize the ionospheric absorption of High Frequency radio waves as a product of these energetic events, and provides observational data to the international Service of Rapid Magnetic Variations (SRMV) to confirm Sfe (Solar Flare Effects). To set up the method, we have analyzed a data set of solar flares occurred during 2011—2014 at daylight hours at EB040 (262 flares, 17 X-class, 124 M-class, and 121 C-class). This led to impose a minimum threshold of -20dB in the SNR for at least four consecutive frequencies to confirm that a given solar flare happened. The method is particularly sensitive in the X-class solar flares detection, performs quite well with M-class flares and even detects some C-class flares. Furthermore, we deeply studied the observational and energetic constraints that affect the detection of the solar flares from the analysis of GOES hard X-Ray; e.g. for each event, we computed the solar altitude angle at the time of the ionospheric sounding to get an estimation of the geoeffective irradiance which has an effect on the local ionosphere. According to these constraints, we can confirm that the method is more effective for detection of flares that occur when the solar elevation angle is higher than 18.94º and have a geoeffective hard X-Ray irradiance above of 3.30·10-6 W/m2.

How to cite: Segarra, A., de Paula, V., Altadill, D., Curto, J. J., and Blanch, E.: Detection of Solar Flares from the Analysis of Signal-To-Noise Ratio Recorded by Digisonde at Ebro Observatory, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5482, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5482, 2022.

09:36–09:42
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EGU22-10777
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Virtual presentation
Ferry Pascal Lanter et al.

Radio waves propagating the ionosphere are subject to a number of unpredictable and corrupting effects, the most significant of which are phase path reduction, Faraday rotation, and scintillation. A method of measuring these effects is therefore necessary in order to study, understand and anticipate their impact. The rise in popularity of small satellites presents a new cost-effective opportunity to study the ionosphere in detail, however the challenge of realizing a beacon within the constraints of a CubeSat system must be overcome. First we introduce a measurement technique that builds on past multi-frequency beacons, incorporating the well established differential phase technique, as well as introducing a new differential polarization technique. We achieve this by employing linearly polarized beacon signals, which enables us to separate phase path reduction and Faraday rotation into a phase and polarization change respectively. The introduction of linear polarization overcomes some of the key limitations in current ionospheric measurement techniques: eliminating errors associated with indirect Faraday rotation measurement, and enabling absolute unambiguous parameter measurement. To validate the capability of measuring the ionosphere within the constraints of a small satellite package, we establish the influence of system noise, weak scattering, clock errors and antenna characteristics on the measurement technique. We then use this to inform a practicable CubeSat beacon design solution which achieves absolute and high resolution measurement of ionospheric parameters within the constraints of the system.

How to cite: Lanter, F. P., Sutinjo, A., and Morgan, J.: Ionospheric Measurement Using a Linearly Polarized Tri-Band Small Satellite Beacon, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10777, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10777, 2022.

09:42–09:48
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EGU22-5277
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Veronika Barta et al.

The sudden increase of X-radiation and EUV emission following solar flares causes additional ionization and increased absorption of electromagnetic (EM) waves in the sunlit hemisphere of the Earth’s ionosphere. The solar flare impact on the ionosphere above Europe on 05 and 06 December 2006 was investigated using ground-based (ionosonde and VLF) and satellite-based data (Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations and VLF measurements from the DEMETER satellite). Based on the geomagnetic indices Kp and Dst, 05 December was a quiet day, while there was a geomagnetic storm on 06 December 2006.

The total fade-out of the EM waves emitted by the ionosondes was experienced at all investigated stations during an X9 class flare on 05 December. The variation of the fmin parameter ( representing the minimum frequency of the echo trace observed in the ionogram, and is a rough measure of the “nondeviative” absorption) and its difference between the quiet period and during the flares have been analyzed. A latitude dependent enhancement of fmin (2-9 MHz) and Delta_fmin (relative change of about 150-300 %) was observed at every station at the time of the X9 (on 05 December) and M6 (on 06 December) flares.

Furthermore, we analyzed VTEC changes during and after the flare events with respect to the mean VTEC values of reference quiet days. During the X9 solar flare, VTEC increased depending on the latitude (2-3 TECU and 5-20 %). On 06 December, the geomagnetic storm increased ionization (5-10 TECU) representing a „positive” ionospheric storm. However, an additional peak in VTEC related to the M6 flare could not be detected.

We have also observed a quantifiable change in transionospheric VLF absorption of