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CR1.4

EDI
The Antarctic Ice Sheet: past, present and future contributions towards global sea level

The largest single source of uncertainty in projections of future global sea level is associated with the mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). In the short-term, it cannot be stated with certainty whether the mass balance of the AIS is positive or negative; in the long-term, the possibility exists that melting of the coastal shelves around Antarctica will lead to an irreversible commitment to ongoing sea level rise. Observational and paleoclimate studies can help to reduce this uncertainty, constraining the parameterizations of physical processes within ice sheet models and allowing for improved projections of future global sea level rise. This session welcomes presentations covering all aspects of observation, paleoclimate reconstruction and modeling of the AIS. Presentations that focus on the mass balance of the AIS and its contribution towards changes in global sea level are particularly encouraged.

Co-organized by CL5.2/OS1
Convener: Taryn NobleECSECS | Co-conveners: Florence Colleoni, Chris Fogwill, Natalya Gomez, Steven Phipps
Presentations
| Thu, 26 May, 15:55–18:10 (CEST)
 
Room N2

Thu, 26 May, 15:10–16:40

Chairpersons: Chris Fogwill, Florence Colleoni

15:55–16:02
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EGU22-7213
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Christian Wirths et al.

Simulations of past and future Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) evolution depend, besides the intrinsic model specific uncertainties, on the applied climatic forcing. To model the past, present and future Antarctic Ice Sheet, a large set of different forcings from global and regional climate models, is available. For a more complete understanding of the modeled ice sheet dynamics, it is therefore critical to understand the influence and the resulting model differences and uncertainties associated with climate forcing choices.  

In this study we examine the impact of different climatic forcings onto the equilibrium state of the AIS for past and present-day conditions. We apply past (LGM, LIG, mid-Pliocene warm period) and present-day climatic forcings from regional (RACMO2.3p2, MAR3.10, HIRHAM5 and COSMO-CLM) and global (PMIP4 ensemble) climate models onto the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM v.2.0). Further, we investigate the response of the total ice mass, its distribution and the grounding line dynamics of the modeled equilibrium ice sheet under varying ice sheet sensitivity parameterizations.  

With this analysis, we aim to gain a better understanding of AIS modelling uncertainties due to the applied climatic forcings and parameterizations, which will improve the assessment of modeled past and future ice-sheet evolution.  

How to cite: Wirths, C., Sutter, J., and Stocker, T.: Exploring the impact of different past- and present-day climatic forcings on Antarctic Ice sheet evolution, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7213, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7213, 2022.

16:02–16:09
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EGU22-1281
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ECS
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Highlight
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Virtual presentation
Ilaria Crotti et al.

The growth and decay of marine ice sheets act as important controls on regional and global climate and sea level. The Wilkes Subglacial Basin ice sheet appears to have undergone thinning and ice discharge events during recent decades, but its past dynamics are still under debate. The aim of our study is to investigate ice margin retreat of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin ice sheet during late Pleistocene interglacials with the help of new high-resolution records from the TALDICE ice core. Here we present a multiproxy approach associated with modelling sensitivity experiments.

The novel high-resolution δ18O signal reveals that interglacial periods MIS 7.5 and 9.3 are characterized by a unique double-peak feature, previously observed for MIS 5.5 (Masson-Delmotte et al., 2011), that is not seen in other Antarctic ice cores. A comparison with our GRISLI modelling results indicates that the Talos Dome site has probably undergone elevation variations of 100-400 m during past interglacials, with a major ice thickness variation during MIS 9.3, likely connected to a relevant margin retreat of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin ice sheet. To validate this elevation change hypothesis, the modelling outputs are compared to the ice-rafted debris record (IBRD) and the neodymium isotope signal from the U1361A sediment core (Wilson et al., 2018), which show that during MIS 5.5 and especially MIS 9.3, the Wilkes Subglacial Basin ice sheet has been subjected to ice discharge events.

Overall, our results indicate that the interglacial double-peak δ18O signal could reflect decreases in Talos Dome site elevation during the late stages of interglacials due to Wilkes Subglacial Basin retreat events. These changes coincided with warmer Southern Ocean temperatures and elevated global mean sea level, confirming the sensitivity of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin ice sheet to ocean warming and its potential role in sea-level change.

How to cite: Crotti, I., Quiquet, A., Landais, A., Stenni, B., Frezzotti, M., Wilson, D., Severi, M., Mulvaney, R., Wilhelms, F., and Barbante, C.: Response of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin Ice Sheet to Southern Ocean Warming During Late Pleistocene Interglacials , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1281, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1281, 2022.

16:09–16:16
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EGU22-8215
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Virtual presentation
David Chandler et al.

Ice shelf basal melt accounts for about half the present-day ice loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet, and is important for both ice sheet mass balance and as a source of fresh water into the Southern Ocean. In Antarctic Ice Sheet simulations over Quaternary glacial cycle time scales, neither basal melt rate nor its principal oceanographic controls (temperature and salinity of waters adjacent to ice shelves) can be reconstructed directly from proxy records. Given the strong ice-ocean-atmosphere interactions, the ideal solution is a coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere model, but computational demands currently limit this approach to short time scales. Stand-alone ice sheet simulations can cover much longer time scales at reasonable resolution, but require an alternative estimate of ocean temperatures. Here we compare the strengths and weaknesses of three options: (i) proxy reconstructions of North Atlantic and circumpolar deep water temperatures, from marine sediment cores north of 43°S; (ii) an ice sheet air temperature reconstruction, damped and lagged by a linear response function; and (iii) a glacial index method which interpolates between CMIP6 lig127k (interglacial) and lgm (glacial) end-member ocean states. We find considerable differences in the rates and magnitudes of the Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to past sea-level changes when applying the three methods in simulations over the last two glacial cycles, particularly during the last interglacial and Holocene. Therefore, the ocean temperature forcing remains as an important but poorly-constrained modelling choice, whether investigating past warm climates or using long simulations as a spin-up for future projections. 

How to cite: Chandler, D., Langebroek, P., Reese, R., Albrecht, T., and Winkelmann, R.: Ocean temperature forcings in glacial-interglacial Antarctic Ice Sheet simulations , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8215, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8215, 2022.

16:16–16:23
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EGU22-4786
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Caroline van Calcar et al.

Changes in ice load over time deform the Earth’s crust and mantle. This effect, Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA), induces vertical deformation of the bedrock of the Antarctic continent and impacts the grounding line position which is critical for the dynamical state of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). GIA introduces a negative feedback and stabilizes the ice sheet evolution, hence GIA modelling is important for transient studies. Most ice dynamic models use a two-layer flat Earth approach with a laterally homogenous relaxation time or a layered Earth approach with a laterally homogenous viscosity (1D) to compute the bedrock deformation. However, viscosity of the Earth’s interior varies laterally (3D) and radially with several orders of magnitude across the Antarctic continent. Here we present a new coupled 3D GIA – ice dynamic model which can run over hundred thousands of years with a resolution of 500 years. The method is applied using various 1D and 3D rheologies. Results show that the present-day ice volume is 3 % lower when using a 1D viscosity of 1021 Pa·s than using a 3D viscosity. However, local differences in grounding line position maybe up to a hundred kilometres around the Ronne and the Ross Ice Shelfs, and ice thickness differences are up to a kilometre for present day conditions when comparing 1D rheologies and 3D rheologies. The difference between the use of various 3D rheologies is significantly smaller. These results underline and quantify the importance of including local GIA feedback effects in ice dynamic models when simulating the Antarctic Ice Sheet evolution over the Last Glacial Cycle.

How to cite: van Calcar, C., van de Wal, R., Blank, B., de Boer, B., and van der Wal, W.: Simulating the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet including 3D GIA feedback during the Last Glacial Cycle, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4786, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4786, 2022.

16:23–16:30
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EGU22-1667
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Jim Marschalek et al.

Tracing the provenance of Antarctic sediments yields unique insights into the form and flow of past ice sheets. However, sediment provenance studies are typically limited to qualitative interpretations by uncertainties regarding subglacial geology, glacial erosion, and transport of sediment both subglacially and beyond the ice sheet margin. Here, we forward model marine geochemical sediment provenance data, in particular neodymium isotope ratios. Numerical ice-sheet modelling predicts the spatial pattern of subglacial erosion rates for a given ice sheet configuration, then ice flow paths are traced to the ice sheet margin. For the modern ice sheet, simple approximations of glacimarine sediment transport processes produce a good agreement with Holocene surface sediments in many areas of glaciological interest. Calibrating our model to the modern setting permits application of the approach to past ice sheet configurations, which show that large changes to sediment provenance over time can be reconstructed around the West Antarctic margin. This first step towards greater integration of Antarctic sediment provenance data with numerical modelling offers the potential for advances in both fields.

How to cite: Marschalek, J., Gasson, E., van de Flierdt, T., Hillenbrand, C.-D., and Siegert, M.: A Path to Quantitative Interpretation of Antarctic Sediment Provenance Records, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1667, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1667, 2022.

16:30–16:37
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EGU22-5596
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Quentin Dalaiden et al.

The future evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS), particularly the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), will strongly influence global sea-level rise during the 21st century and beyond. However, because of the sparse observational network in concert with the strong internal variability, our understanding of the long-term climate and ice sheet changes in the Antarctic is limited. Among all the processes involved in Antarctic climate variability and change, an increasing number of studies have pointed out the strong relationship between the climate in the tropics and Antarctic (also called tropical-Antarctic teleconnections), especially between the Pacific Ocean and the West Antarctic region. Most of those studies focus only on the past decades, but to fully understand the long-term Antarctic climate changes associated with tropical variability longer time-series are needed. This is achieved here by using annually-resolved paleoclimate records (ice core and coral records) that cover at least the last two centuries to study both the year-to-year and multi-decadal variability of tropical-Antarctic teleconnections. These records are incorporated into a data assimilation framework that optimally combines the paleoclimate records with the physics of the climate model. As data assimilation provides a climate reconstruction that is dynamically constrained – through the spatial covariance in the climate model – the contribution of tropical variability on Antarctic climate changes can be directly assessed. Different sensitivity tests are performed to isolate the contribution of each tropical basin. Additionally, the roles of multi-decadal and year-to-year variability are compared by averaging the annual paleoclimate records at a lower temporal resolution. This new method of combining the two time-scales is proposed in order to preserve the multi-decadal variability in the annual climate reconstruction.

How to cite: Dalaiden, Q., Abram, N., and Goosse, H.: Contribution of tropical variability on Antarctic climate changes over the past centuries, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5596, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5596, 2022.

Thu, 26 May, 17:00–18:30

Chairpersons: Chris Fogwill, Florence Colleoni

17:00–17:07
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EGU22-4161
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Mads Dømgaard et al.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, various countries have carried out expeditions to Antarctica with the aim of claiming territory, reconnaissance as well as capturing aerial images for topographic mapping. Many of these image inventories has since then been forgotten and never used for scientific purposes. We have gained access to a unique dataset of aerial images captured in 1936-1937 as a part of the Norwegian Thorshavn IV expedition surveying and mapping large parts of the East Antarctic coastline. The images have a stereo overlap of approximate 60% and are digitized using a photogrammetry-grade scanner, enabling us to produce the earliest known digital elevation models and orthophotos of Antarctica.

Expanding the observational records of Antarctic glaciers are vital for better understanding and modelling how changes in climatic parameters affects the ice. Currently, we know very little about the behaviour of Antarctic glaciers prior to the 1990s, due to a lack of large-scale observations. Several studies has proven the effectiveness of using digitally-scanned historical aerial images in studying ice mass losses of the pre-satellite era, but very few such studies exist for Antarctica. In this study, we explore Norwegian and Australian historical aerial expedition images collected between 1937 and 1997 to extensively expand the records and provide the earliest regional-scale Antarctic glacier records. The images are processed using structure-from-motion photogrammetry, which enables us to construct accurate, high-resolution digital elevation models and orthophotos. By combining expedition images with modern satellite data, we are creating a unique time-series dataset to study the changes of multiple glaciers along the East Antarctic coastline in Mac Robertson and Kemp Land between 1937 and 2017.

How to cite: Dømgaard, M., Huiban, F., Schomacker, A., Mouginot, J., and Bjørk, A.: Dynamics of East Antarctic glaciers from 1937-2017 analyzed using historical aerial expedition images, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4161, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4161, 2022.

17:07–17:14
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EGU22-8177
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Theresa Diener and Ingo Sasgen

As large-scale circulation patterns change in the Southern Hemisphere the Antarctic ice sheet is exposed to increases in atmospheric and ocean temperatures. These climatological changes vary regionally and hold the potential to initiate processes that lead to ice sheet disintegration and sea level rise. In the Amundsen Sea region, in West Antarctica, major ice mass losses and increased ice flow can already be observed at present. Such processes are less common in East Antarctica but are also occurring in a more regionally restricted manner, for example to the glaciers feeding the Amery Ice Shelf.

The current state of the ice sheet is critical to evaluate the associated contribution to future global sea level rise. Therefore, we aim to quantify ice dynamic acceleration in Antarctica based on differencing GRACE/GRACE-FO and ERA5-SMB for the period 2002 to 2020. This indirect method provides an alternative to estimates that quantify ice stream acceleration based on satellite observations of surface ice velocity and is justified by the excellent agreement between GRACE/GRACE-FO and SMB on interannual time scales. In agreement with direct observations, our estimate identifies the Amundsen Sea embayment and the Bellingshausen Sea region in West Antarctica as the dominant source of dynamic loss and potential instability. We find that uncertainties in the SMB estimate are the dominant limitation in the accuracy of our outflow estimate. The uncertainties in our estimate can be reduced by further improvement of regional climate models. In this presentation, we introduce an alternative method to estimate dynamical acceleration, along with its uncertainty, and show its value in assessments of the state of the Antarctic ice sheet. We conclude that constraining the acceleration of ice sheet mass loss in the projection of sea level rise results in a contribution that is more than twice that of linear extrapolation to 2100.

How to cite: Diener, T. and Sasgen, I.: Regional Acceleration of the Antarctic Dynamic Ice Loss from Satellite Gravimetry, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8177, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8177, 2022.

17:14–17:21
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EGU22-649
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Marie G. P. Cavitte et al.

The future contributions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to sea level rise will be highly dependent on the evolution of its surface mass balance (SMB), which can offset increased ice discharge at the grounding line. In-situ SMB constraints over annual to multi-decadal timescales come mostly from firn and ice cores. However, although they have a high temporal resolution, ice cores are local measurements of SMB with a surface footprint on the order of cm2. Post depositional processes (e.g. wind driven redistribution) can change the initial snowfall record locally and therefore affect our interpretation of the SMB signal recovered. On the other hand, regional climate models have a high temporal resolution but may miss some of the processes at work as a result of their large spatial footprint, on the order of km2. Comparisons of ice core and model SMB records often show large discrepancies in terms of trends and variability.

We investigate the representativeness of a single shallow core record of SMB of the area surrounding it. For this, we use ice-penetrating radar data, co-located with the ice core records examined, to obtain a multi-annual to decadal radar-derived SMB record. We then compare the radar-derived SMB records to the ice core SMB records to determine the surface area that the ice core record is representative of, in terms of mean SMB as well as SMB temporal variability on historical timescales. We examine ice core records situated over the coastal ice rises of East Antarctica, where SMB is high and spatially heterogeneous, as well as over the interior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, where SMB is more uniform spatially. By comparing these two contrasting regions in terms of SMB, we will determine whether a general rule of thumb can be obtained to determine the spatial representativeness of an ice core SMB record.

How to cite: Cavitte, M. G. P., Goosse, H., Wauthy, S., Medley, B., Kausch, T., Tison, J.-L., Van Liefferinge, B., Lenaerts, J. T. M., and Pattyn, F.: Quantifying the spatial representativeness of ice core surface mass balance records using ground-penetrating radar data in Antarctica, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-649, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-649, 2022.

17:21–17:28
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EGU22-7802
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Emily A. Hill et al.

The stability of the grounding lines of Antarctica is a fundamental question in glaciology, because current grounding lines in some locations are at the edge of large marine basins, and have been hypothesized to potentially undergo irreversible retreat in response to climate change. This could have global consequences and raise sea levels by several metres. If the Antarctic grounding lines in their current configuration are close to being unstable, a small change in external forcing, e.g. a reduction in ice shelf buttressing resulting from an increase in ice shelf melt rates, would lead to continued retreat of the grounding line due to the marine ice sheet instability hypothesis, even after the melt perturbation is reverted. Alternatively, if the system state reverts to its previous value after the perturbation is removed, we can consider the current grounding line positions to be reversible. 

Here, we initialise the ice sheets models Úa and Elmer/Ice to closely replicate the current configuration of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, in particular, the current position of the grounding lines. Under control conditions, state fluxes and ice volume changes are forced to be in balance. Using these quasi-steady state ice sheet configurations, we apply a small amplitude perturbation in ice shelf melt rates by imposing an increase for 20 years in the far-field ocean temperature. After 20 years the melt rate perturbation is returned to zero, and model simulations are continued for a further 80-year recovery period. During this recovery period we examine the trend in ice flux and grounding line position, i.e. do they tend towards their previous values, or do they move further away from their initial state? Our results suggest that the global grounding line around Antarctica begins to reverse to its former state after the perturbation is removed. However, we find the reversibility and response times of grounding lines to a small perturbation in ice shelf buttressing varies between individual basins across the ice sheet.

This work is part of the TiPACCs project and complements an overview presentation on the reversibility of present-day Antarctic grounding lines (EGU22-5176) as well as a presentation exploring long-term reversibility experiments (EGU22-7885).

How to cite: Hill, E. A., Urruty, B., Reese, R., Garbe, J., Gagliardini, O., Durand, G., Gillet-Chaulet, F., Gudmundsson, G. H., Winkelmann, R., Chekki, M., Chandler, D., and Langebroek, P.: Reversibility experiments of present-day Antarctic grounding lines: the short-term perspective, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7802, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7802, 2022.

17:28–17:35
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EGU22-7885
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ECS
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Virtual presentation
Ronja Reese et al.

The stability of the grounding lines of Antarctica is a fundamental question in glaciology, because current grounding lines are in some locations at the edge of large marine basins, and have been hypothesized to potentially undergo irreversible retreat in response to climate change. This could have global consequences and raise sea levels by several metres. However, their long-term reversibility for the current ice sheet geometry has not yet been questioned, i.e., if the present-day climatology is kept constant, will the grounding lines remain close to their currently observed position or will they retreat substantially? 

Here we focus on the long-term evolution of Antarctic grounding lines over millennial time scales. Using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, an initial equilibrium state is created for historic climate conditions around 1850. Then the model is run forward until 2015 with atmospheric and oceanic changes from ISMIP6 to reflect recent trends in the ice sheet. After 2015, we keep the present-day climatology constant and let the ice sheet evolve towards a new steady state, which takes several thousand years. An ensemble over model parameters related to sliding and ocean forcing allows us to analyse the sensitivity of the grounding line evolution to model uncertainties. Since we start from a historic equilibrium state, we can use this approach to assess if the increase from historic to present-day climatology might push Antarctic grounding lines across a tipping point into a different basin of attraction that is characterised by a substantially retreated steady-state grounding line position. 

This work is part of the TiPACCs project and complements an overview presentation on the reversibility of present-day Antarctic grounding lines (EGU22-5176) as well as a presentation exploring the short-term reversibility experiments in more detail (EGU22-7802).

How to cite: Reese, R., Urruty, B., Hill, E. A., Garbe, J., Gagliardini, O., Durand, G., Gillet-Chaulet, F., Gudmundsson, G. H., Winkelmann, R., Chekki, M., Chandler, D., and Langebroek, P.: Reversibility experiments of present-day Antarctic grounding lines: the long-term perspective, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-7885, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-7885, 2022.

17:35–17:42
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EGU22-9447
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ECS
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On-site presentation
Sergio Pérez-Montero et al.

Sea-level rise projections under climate change exhibit large uncertainty related to the contribution of ice sheets. A major source of uncertainty is the Antarctic Ice-Sheet (AIS) due to the marine-based nature of the West Antarctic Ice-Sheet (WAIS). Part of the WAIS is grounded under sea level and thus in contact with the surrounding ocean via the floating ice shelves. Melting of ice shelves does not directly contribute to sea level rise but it modulates the ice flow towards the sea by controlling the discharge through the grounding line. However, the processes that regulate the dynamics are not fully well understood and represented in state-of-the-art models due to the complexity of the various feedbacks involved. In addition, the basal friction or sliding law that should be employed is not well known. In this context arose the Antarctic BUttressing Intercomparison Project (ABUMIP, Sun et al., 2020) with the aim of studying the response of the AIS to a sudden and maintained collapse of its ice shelves. Here we show the results obtained while performing experiments extending those of Sun et al., (2020) with the thermomechanical ice-sheet model Yelmo and assessing the effect of using different friction laws.

How to cite: Pérez-Montero, S., Blasco, J., Robinson, A., Montoya, M., and Alvarez-Solas, J.: Assessment of the Antarctic ice-sheet response to ice-shelf collapse as a function of the friction law employed, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9447, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9447, 2022.

17:42–17:49
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EGU22-10547
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Virtual presentation
Natalie Trayling et al.

As the atmosphere warms in response to increasing greenhouse gas emissions, snow accumulation over the Antarctic Ice Sheet is projected to increase over the next century. Furthermore, short-term emissions scenarios are also expected to have long-term impacts on ice sheet mass balance for centuries to come. Here, we analysed the extended runs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project’s Sixth Phase (CMIP6) to investigate the consequences of emissions scenarios on Antarctic surface mass balance until 2300. Unlike the Arctic, which shows a regime shift from snow-dominated precipitation to rain-dominated precipitation, snow accumulation continues to outpace ablation over the Antarctic Ice Sheet through the year 2300, even under the high emissions Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 5-8.5 scenario. The positive relationship between precipitation and temperature increases through time at both high elevation in the continental interior as well as at the coastal margins of the ice sheet. Under high emissions, although rainfall is projected in some vulnerable regions, such as Thwaites Glacier, overall surface mass balance remains positive and increases through time. In corresponding ice sheet model experiments using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, the sea level compensation of this increased surface mass balance is as high as 10 cm by 2100 and 1.8 m by 2300, though considerable intermodel spread exists. These model results suggest that mass loss of the ice sheet will continue to be dominated by ocean driven-melting rather than melting of the ice sheet surface for the next centuries.

How to cite: Trayling, N., Lowry, D., and Dadic, R.: Projected increases in Antarctic snow accumulation from CMIP6 to 2300, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10547, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10547, 2022.

17:49–17:56
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EGU22-2310
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Virtual presentation
Suzanne Bevan et al.

Recent sea-level rise from the Antarctic icesheet has been dominated by contributions from Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers of the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE). Much of the ASE ice is grounded below sea level and is therefore likely to be highly sensitive to ongoing oceanic and atmospheric warming.

Confidence in model-based predictions of the future contributions of the ASE region to sea-level rise requires an understanding of the sensitivity of the predictions to input data, such as bedrock topography, and to chosen parameters within, for example, sliding laws.

We will present results from using the BISICLES adaptive mesh refinement ice-sheet model to explore the sensitivity of modelled ASE 2050 grounded ice loss. We test a regularized Coulomb friction sliding law, varying the regularization parameter, and we test the sensitivity to bedrock elevation by adding gaussian noise of different wavelengths to MEaSUREs BedMachine Version 2 elevations. However, within our experiments, we find the greatest sensitivity in modelled 2050 sea-level contributions is to the imposed ice-shelf thinning or damage rates, which we vary between spatially uniform values of 0 to 15 m/year.

We will also present a comparison of the modelled annual evolution of surface velocity and surface elevation change with observations. Observed surface velocities are based on Sentinel 1 feature tracking, and surface elevation change rates are derived from satellite radar altimetry.

How to cite: Bevan, S., Cornford, S., Luckman, A., Hogg, A., Otosaka, I., and Surawy-Stepney, T.: Exploring the sensitivity of modelled sea-level rise projections from the Amundsen Sea Embayment of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to model parameters, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2310, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2310, 2022.

17:56–18:03
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EGU22-9736
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ECS
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Sebastian Rosier and Hilmar Gudmundsson

Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica may be the single largest contributor to sea level rise in the coming centuries, but existing projections over such timescales are highly uncertain. A number of factors contribute to this uncertainty and robust predictions involve many complex processes through the interaction between ice, ocean and atmosphere. Here, we use the Úa ice-flow model in conjunction with an uncertainty quantification approach to provide uncertainty estimates for the future (100 years’ time scale) mass loss from Thwaites, and the relative contribution of individual model parameters to that uncertainty. In a first step, we simulate Thwaites glacier from 1997 to present day for a wide variety of uncertain model parameters and compare key outputs from each simulation to observations.  Using a Bayesian probability framework we sample the model parameter space, using informed priors, to build up a model emulator, allowing us to provide uncertainty estimates for a range of future emission scenarios. We show how this framework can be used to quantify the relative contribution of each model parameter to the total variance in our estimation of the future mass loss from the area. This, furthermore, allows us to make clear quantitative statements about different sources of uncertainty, for example, those related to external forcing parameterizations (e.g. surface mass balance) as compared to uncertainties in ice-flow parameters (e.g. basal sliding).    

How to cite: Rosier, S. and Gudmundsson, H.: Estimating the future sea level rise contribution of Thwaites glacier, Antarctica, using an uncertainty quantification approach, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9736, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9736, 2022.

18:03–18:10
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EGU22-9448
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ECS
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Highlight
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On-site presentation
Antonio Juárez-Martínez et al.

Sea-level rise represents one of the biggest threats that humankind has to face in the
coming centuries. Antarctica hosts today's largest ice sheet on Earth, the Antarctic Ice Sheet
(AIS). In the mid-long term, the AIS could become the main contributor to sea-level rise,
especially as a result of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) being marine-based and
therefore strongly exposed to the ocean. Nonetheless, there is substantial uncertainty in the
future contribution of the AIS to sea-level rise, mainly as a result of poor understanding of
physical processes, such as ice-sheet dynamics or ice-ocean interactions. In order to
overcome the problem of different Antarctic sea-level projections with different experimental
setups, the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 was organized (ISMIP6).
The first results showed that at higher emission scenarios the AIS melts more. Nonetheless,
the WAIS response to this warming varies widely among the models. We herein investigate
the contribution of the higher-order ice-sheet model Yelmo. Results
with Yelmo show a strong sensitivity of the AIS contribution to sea-level rise to the calibration
of the basal-melting parametrization, particularly remarkable in the WAIS, but being in the
range of the results reached by other ice-sheets models in the context of the ISMIP6
intercomparison project.

How to cite: Juárez-Martínez, A., Blasco, J., Montoya, M., Álvarez-Solas, J., and Robinson, A.: Antarctic contribution to future sea-level rise with a three-dimensional ice-sheet model, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9448, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9448, 2022.