Biogeosciences and wine: the management and the environmental processes that regulate the terroir effect in space and time
Viticulture is one of the most important agricultural sectors of Europe with an average annual production of 168 million hectoliters (54% of global consumption). The concept of “Terroir” links the quality and typicity of wine to the territory, and, in particular, to specific environmental characteristics that affect the plant response (e.g. climate, geology, pedology). The environmental factors that drive the terroir effect vary in space and time, as well as soil and crop management.
Understanding the spatial variability of some environmental factors (e.g. soil) is very important to manage and preserve terroirs and face the current and future issue of climate change. In this sense, it is important to stress that in the last decade, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field, including: sensors for mapping and monitoring environmental variables, remote sensing and drones for crop monitoring, forecast models, use of microelements and isotopes for wine traceability, metagenome approach to study the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients.
Moreover, public awareness for ecosystem functioning has led to more quantitative approaches in evidencing the relations between management and the ecosystem services of vineyard agroecosystems. Agroecology approaches in vineyard, like the use of cover crops, straw mulching, and organic amendments, are developing to improve biodiversity, organic matter, soil water and nutrient retention, preservation from soil erosion.
On those bases, the session will address the several aspects of viticultural terroirs:
1) quantifying and spatial modelling of terroir components that influence plant growth, fruit composition and quality, mostly examining climate-soil-water relationships; 2) terroir concept resilience to climate change; 3) wine traceability and zoning based on microelements and isotopes; 4) interaction between vineyard management practices and effects on soil and water quality as well as biodiversity and related ecosystem services.
The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is considered to be the main pest in the vineyards of the Douro Demarcated Region due to the economic losses it can cause. The phenology of both the grapevine and the pest has changed in the last decades due to the increase in temperature. Therefore, we assess the potential impact of climate change on the (a)synchrony of both species. The results show that the phenological stages (budburst, flowering and veraison) undergo an advancement throughout the region (at an ~1 km resolution) under a climate change scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways, RCP8.5) for the period 2051–2080, with respect to the historic period (1989–2015). For cv. Touriga Nacional and Touriga Franca, the budburst advances up to 14 days, whereas for flowering and veraison the advancements are up to 10 days (mainly at low elevations along the Douro River). For the phenology of Lobesia botrana, earliness was also verified in the three flights (consequently there may be more generations per year), covering the entire region. Furthermore, the third flight advances further compared to the others. For both varieties, the interaction between the third flight (beginning and peak) and the veraison date is the most relevant modification under the future climate change scenario (RCP8.5, 2051–2080). The aforementioned outcomes from the phenology models help to better understand the possible shifts of both trophic levels in the region under future climate, giving insights into their future interactions. To summarize, this study provides new knowledge at a regional scale and with a medium-long term projection (2051–2080). The projection mainly takes into account the RCP8.5 climate scenario.
How to cite:
Reis, S., Martins, J., Gonçalves, F., Carlos, C., and Santos, J. A.: European grapevine moth and Vitis vinifera L. phenology in the Douro region: (a)synchrony and climate scenarios, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1334, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1334, 2022.
Most European vineyards are managed under rainfed conditions, where seasonal water deficit has become increasingly important. The flowering-veraison phenophase represents an important period for vine response to water stress, which is seldomly thoroughly evaluated. Therefore, we aim to quantify the flowering-veraison water stress levels using Crop Water Stress Indicator (CWSI) over 1986–2015 for important European wine regions and to assess the respective potential Yield Lose Rate (YLR). Additionally, we also investigate whether an advanced flowering-veraison phase may help to alleviate the water stress with improved yield. A process-based grapevine model STICS is employed, which has been extensively calibrated for flowering and veraison stages using observed data at 38 locations with 10 different grapevine varieties. Subsequently, the model is being implemented at the regional level, considering site-specific calibration results and gridded climate and soil datasets. The findings suggest wine regions with stronger flowering-veraison CWSI tend to have higher potential YLR. However, contrasting patterns are found between wine regions in France-Germany-Luxembourg and Italy-Portugal-Spain. The former tends to have slight-to-moderate drought conditions (CWSI<0.5) and a negligible-to-moderate YLR (<30%), whereas the latter possesses severe-to-extreme CWSI (>0.5) and substantial YLR (>40%). Wine regions prone to a high drought risk (CWSI>0.75) are also identified, which are concentrated in southern Mediterranean Europe. An advanced flowering-veraison phase may have benefited from cooler temperatures and a higher fraction of spring precipitation in wine regions of Italy-Portugal-Spain, resulting in alleviated CWSI and moderate reductions of YLR. For those of France-Germany-Luxembourg, this can have reduced flowering-veraison precipitation, but prevalent alleviations of YLR are also found, possibly because of shifted phase towards a cooler growing season with reduced evaporative demands. Overall, such a retrospective analysis might provide new insights towards better management of seasonal water deficit for conventionally vulnerable Mediterranean wine regions, but also relatively cooler and wetter Central European regions. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by the Clim4Vitis project—“Climate change impact mitigation for European viticulture: knowledge transfer for an integrated approach”, funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, under grant agreement no. 810176; it was also supported by FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UIDB/04033/2020.
How to cite:
Santos, J. A., Menz, C., Fraga, H., Costafreda-Aumedes, S., Leolini, L., Ramos, M. C., Molitor, D., van Leeuwen, C., and Yang, C.: Modelling vine water stress during a critical period and potential yield reduction rate in European wine regions: a retrospective analysis, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1704, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1704, 2022.
Vineyard productivity and grape quality are strictly linked with the pedoclimatic characteristics (e.g. soil and climate) as well as with cultivation techniques (e.g. canopy and soil management, plant nutrition). Each grapevine cultivar is characterized by specific morpho-physiological traits which determine the ability to cope with stressors. The knowledge of the plasticity of such traits is needed to forecast how vineyards would respond to climate changes. Indeed, viticulture in some areas of the Mediterranean basin, is facing sustainability problems due increase in severe and prolonged drought periods, responsible for reduction in yield and grape quality. Although to achieve quality and/or geographical indication labels, the Italian legislation imposes rainfed cultivation for grapevine, the need for irrigation introduction and management in the vineyard is becoming more and more evident. For designing the best strategies for water use in the vineyard, it is fundamental to gain knowledge on hydraulics of the specific cultivar in its pedoclimatic context. The application of dendro-sciences techniques, based on the fine study of anatomical and isotopic traits of tree-rings in the vine main stem and of their relations with environmental parameters, can help reconstructing the past plant’s eco-physiological behaviour. Here we report the results of one of the activities carried out within the GREASE project, funded by the Campania Region through the Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, in the framework of improving grapevine productivity, resource use efficiency and resilience for the sustainable management of vineyards.
The study was conducted in a vineyard of Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera ‘Greco’ at the premises of Feudi di San Gregorio farm, in southern Italy (Avellino). In this study, we aimed to analyse the relations between anatomical and isotopic wood traits with climate parameters in tree-ring series from vines of two age classes which were subjected to a change in pruning technique in the past years. Wood cores and stem disks were sampled and tree-rings were dated according to dendro-chronological techniques. Then semi-thin sections of the tree-ring series were cut and analysed through light and fluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis allowed the quantification of wood anatomical traits linked with hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to embolism. The tree-ring series were then dissected to prepare samples for the determination of d13C and evaluate intrinsic water use efficiency. The overall wood anatomical and stable isotope parameters were analysed together with climatic data through multivariate statistical analysis.
The application of dendro-sciences technique proved to be useful to reconstruct how vines have used the water resources before and after the changing in the pruning technique. Understanding how the vine has reacted to past environmental variability and changes in cultivation factors can help forecasting how it will behave under the different climate change scenarios.
How to cite:
De Micco, V., Petracca, F., D'Auria, A., Amitrano, C., Niccoli, F., Altieri, S., Pacheco-Solana, A., Erbaggio, A., Cirillo, C., Sirch, P., and Battipaglia, G.: The GREASE project: application of dendrosciences to analyse the mechanisms for Greco grapevine acclimation to environmental variability and cultivation factors, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3058, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3058, 2022.
For decades, vines have been grown in dry regions, as the plant has to grow under water deficit to produce quality wines. Due in part to climate change, vine cultivation is developing in historically cooler and more humid regions. In addition to climate, soil and plant material are the terroir factors that most influence the water status of the vine, and conditions can be different within the same vineyard plot, implying heterogeneous vineyard management to achieve optimal wine quality.
The objective of this study is to explore the potential of Sentinel-2 to characterize the intra-plot variability of vine water status and its evolution through time.
Two Belgian vineyards, with high soil water availability intra-plot variation and different grape varieties, were selected. Both vineyards have grass in the inter-row and the spatial distributions of soil depth and soil water holding capacity (WHC) were measured. A cumulative drought index (DIcum) was also estimated for each plot.
Four years (2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021) of Sentinel-2 images of these two Belgian vineyards were analyzed. Several spectral indices, based on the blue, red, NIR and SWIR bands on a 10 x 10 m² grid, were calculated and compared to quantify the evolution of the water status of the vine, as a function of the weather conditions (DIcum), the grape variety and the WHC. Predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) measurements were collected in situ at different dates during dry periods in order to compare them with the remote sensing indices.
We observed that spectral indices and the WHC were better correlated when the water conditions were the most constraining for the vine (e.g. R² = 0.72 on 16/08/18 for NDWI/EVI), i.e. when DIcum is lowest. Edaphic heterogeneity is therefore better captured by spectral indices when conditions are dry for the vine. The spectral indices have a low value when the WHC is low, and vice versa. The spectral index NDWI/EVI quantifies the water status of the vine better than the NDWI, when comparing linear regressions between the two spectral indices and the Ψpd measured in the field (R² = 0.67 for NDWI/EVI; R² = 0.64 for NDWI).
In conclusion, the NDWI/EVI spectral index, measured from the Sentinel-2 bands, is promising for quantifying the spatial distribution of vine water status on a regular basis at the plot scale.
How to cite:
Delval, L., Javaux, M., Jonard, F., and Delvaux, B.: Quantification of intra-plot variability of vine water status using Sentinel-2 : case study of two Belgian vineyards, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-3908, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-3908, 2022.
Climate change affects the agricultural sector and, in particular, viticulture where water is a key factor for fruit development and quality. A scarcity of water determines a reduction in biomass production, and for some plants, as in the case of grapevine, it can endorse fruit quality.
The monitoring and management of plant water stress in the vineyard is critical as well as the knowledge of how each specific cultivar reacts to it. This study reports the preliminary results of the Italian National project “Influence of agro-climatic conditions on the microbiome and genetic expression of grapevines for the production of red wines: a multidisciplinary approach (ADAPT)”. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to compare the Cabernet Sauvignon and Aglianico, both black grapevine cultivars, responses to different pedoclimatic conditions of southern Italy. The research was conducted in Campania, Molise, and Sicilia regions, three areas devoted to high-quality wine production. In each site, the environmental characterization was designated, and the soils were characterized through a pedological survey. During 2020-2021, soil water content and the principal weather variables (e.g., temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, etc.) have been monitored by means of in situ stations, while plant responses were collected by means of field campaigns (LAI, LWP, grapes composition). The agro-hydrological model SWAP was used to solve the soil water balance in each site to determine the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) from April to October in the years 2020 and 2021. The obtained CWSI index was compared with data collected on plant status (e.g., LWP) and correlated to grapes quality (e.g., sugar content, acidity). Finally, the comparison between the calculated current CWSI (2020-2021) and the potential one obtained from the analysis of local reference climate has shown a significant agreement. This data underlines the appropriateness of the different pedo-climatic conditions chosen to evaluate the influence of agro-climatic conditions on the microbiome and genetic expression of wine grapevines.
How to cite:
Monaco, E., Buonanno, M., Ferlito, F., Nicolosi, E., Sicilia, A., Lo Piero, A. R., Aversano, R., Villano, C., Gambuti, A., Coppola, R., and Bonfante, A.: Cabernet Sauvignon and Aglianico grapevine (V. vinifera L.) response to different pedo-climatic environments in Italy , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4112, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4112, 2022.
The pedo-climatic conditions can determine the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as have deep influence on wine quality. Climate change has already caused significant warming and drought in most grape-growing areas of the world, particularly in the Mediterranean area where viticulture is suffering yield and grape quality reductions due to the increased frequency and duration of drought periods. Ongoing climate change is aggravating some critical issues in the production of the autochthonous grape variety 'Greco' (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera), widely cultivated in the Campania Region (southern Italy) and used alone or blend in many quality label wines. Nowadays, there is a high risk for the economic sustainability of Greco cultivation due to the following main issues: reduced vine productivity, low selling price of grapes, and territory fragmentation. Such criticisms induce the abandonment of small/medium-sized farms due to either crop conversion or consolidation into larger farms.
Although pedo-climatic conditions can affect vineyard productivity and grape quality primarily, the application of adequate cultivation techniques, such as soil and canopy management, can help alleviating the increasing constrains to vineyard sustainability. In the framework of the Rural Development Programme 2014-2020, Campania Region funded the GREASE project to contribute to the main topic of improving grapevine productivity, resource use efficiency, and resilience for the sustainable management of vineyards.
The general objective of Grease project is to improve the potential production of Greco concerns the management of major cultivation practices in viticulture by the realization of a cultivar-specific model for vine canopy and soil management. Optimization of such cultivation factors is important in order to achieve a good vegetative and reproductive balance that enhances grape and wine quality, improves farm profitability and finally provides environmental sustainability. The project is carried out in a Greco experimental vineyard of Feudi di San Gregorio winery in southern Italy (Avellino, Campania region). One of the main activities is to analyse the effect of soil management and vine training systems on the continuum soil-plant-atmosphere system. The growth and the eco-physiological traits of vines were monitored in the main phenological phases by measuring morphological parameters, fertility, leaf gas-exchanges, chlorophyll a fluorescence emission, leaf water potentials, and leaf anatomical characteristics. The meteorological data and soil water content were collected through weather stations and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique. Proximal sensing techniques were applied to monitor the whole vineyard performances. The production of each experimental plot was evaluated in terms of chemical characterization of musts and wines in order to assess the treatments-induced changes in oenological traits.
The preliminary results of two-years experimental trials are presented to highlighting how the canopy and soil management can influence the vine eco-physiological behavior and productive performance.
An increased understanding of how cultivation factors influence the efficient use of available resources in the Greco vineyard will allow know-how transfer to other grapevine productive systems.
How to cite:
Cirillo, C., Bonfante, A., Arena, C., Buonanno, M., Petracca, F., Amitrano, C., Damiano, N., Erbaggio, A., Pagano, L., Caputo, R., and De Micco, V.: The GREASE project to unravel how soil and canopy management can mitigate climate change effects on Greco grapevine, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4145, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4145, 2022.
In a vineyard, plant water status variability is strongly dependent on soil spatial variability, whose physical characteristics drive the processes involved in the soil water balance. The more the soil and its characteristics vary in space (horizontally and vertically), the less homogeneous the productive and qualitative response within the vineyard will be. In this context, the proximal sensing of apparent soil Electrical Conductivity (ECa) and its monitoring during the growing season can help understanding the nature of spatial variability of vineyard, supporting both viticultural microzoning (identifying Homogeneous and functional Homogeneous Zones, HZs and fHZs) and field experiments. In this contribution, the importance of use of ECa spatial monitoring during the grapevine growing season will be showed, highlighting its importance in the evaluation of the vineyard response and identification of FHZs.
In this direction, a predictive model of soil ECa is proposed. It consists of the spatial prediction of ECa starting from punctual measurements obtained by a network of TDR probes able to measure ECA. In order to realise this model, a machine learning method based on Random Forests was used. It was trained to derive the spatial relationships between the apparent value of ECa measured with geophysical instrument and the ECa measured with the ACCLIMA TDR probes. In this way, a spatial prediction of the ECa values of the surveyed area is possible.
The study was realized in a vineyard of southern Italy on Greco (white) grapevine, where detailed and precise records on soil and atmosphere systems, in-vivo plant monitoring of eco-physiological parameters have been conducted in 2020 and 2021, and spatial variability of plant status in vineyard monitored by means of UAV multispectral images. Apparent soil ECa was measured five timesduring the growing season 2021 by using the PROFILER EMP 400 electromagnetometer both in vertical and horizontal dipole mode. This instrument allows to simultaneously work with three frequencies (5000, 10000 and 15000 Hz) and explore different depth volumes of sub-soil. The predictive model results were processed in MATLAB and Python software and validated on plant responses obtained from vegetational indexes calculated from UAV multispectral images. The obtained results have shown how the ECa can be estimated by the predictive model carrying out important information to support vineyard monitoring.
How to cite:
Cutaneo, C., Monaco, E., Buonanno, M., Castaldo, R., Tizzani, P., Ezzy, H., Erbaggio, A., De Micco, V., and Bonfante, A.: A predictive model of spatial soil ECa variability in the vineyard to support the monitoring of plant status, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4859, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4859, 2022.
Climate-change-driven increasing temperature and frequency of prolonged drought periods are affecting vine growth and physiological behaviour in the Mediterranean region, with consequences on berry yield and quality. In this scenario, there is increasing need to improve the knowledge on how plants react to environmental fluctuations and forecast possible responses to climate changes. Moreover, the plasticity of morpho-functional aspects, on which vine acclimation relies, can vary according to the spatial variability of some environmental factors such as soil properties and microclimate in the vineyard.
The objective of this study was to analyse vine growth and production performance in four vineyards of Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera ‘Falanghina’ located in southern Italy (La Guardiense farm, Campania region) subjected to different pedo-climatic conditions but characterized by vines of similar age, training system (double Guyot), spacing (≈ 4545 vines/ha). Climatic parameters were continuously monitored in each of the vineyard, through meteorological stations and FDR probes installed at three soil depths. The vineyard performance was monitored over three years characterized by different climatic conditions. Vine growth and production was monitored during the three years by quantifying morphological and eco-physiological parameters, measured in the main phenological phases, including: plant architecture, fertility, leaf anatomical traits, and grapevine photosynthetic performance through measurements in vivo of leaf gas exchanges and fluorescence chlorophyll emission. The plant nutritional status was characterized by analyzing minerals (anions, cations) and organic acids in leaves and berries. The analysis of stable isotopes in leaves, wood and must was performed to estimate the whole plant water use efficiency. Berry quality was evaluated by measuring soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, malic acid, phenolics, anthocyanins, assimilable nitrogen etc. Microvinifications were also performed to evaluate the variability of oenological traits as well as geomorphology and pedological analyses to assess soil properties. Finally, a retrospective analysis through the analysis of anatomical and isotopic traits in tree-ring series was also carried out to achieve information on the past plant eco-physiological behaviour.
The overall analysis of data highlighted that the four vineyards can be grouped into two clusters on the basis of growth and production performance as well as of must quality, due to the spatial variability of soil properties leading to different real water availability for the plants, the different microclimates either exacerbated or mitigated by the different cultivation practices and soil management. The improvement of knowledge about the plasticity of morphofunctional traits in different pedo-climatic contexts can support forecasting future response to climatic stress conditions thus helping the management of vineyards.
How to cite:
Damiano, N., Cirillo, C., Bonfante, A., Battipaglia, G., Arena, C., Erbaggio, A., Petracca, F., Cherubini, P., Giulioli, M., and De Micco, V.: Monitoring Falanghina grapevine acclimation to pedo-climatic spatial variability through a multidisciplinary approach tracing functional traits in the continuum soil-plant-atmosphere, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4955, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4955, 2022.
Currently, the main goal of agriculture is to promote the resilience of agricultural systems in a sustainable way through the improvement of use efficiency of farm resources, increasing crop yield and quality, under climate change conditions. This last is expected to drastically modify plant growth, with possible negative effects especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Europe on the viticultural sector. In this context, the monitoring of spatial behavior of grapevine during the growing season represents an opportunity to improve the plant management, winegrowers’ incomes, and to preserve the environmental health, but it has additional costs for the farmer. Nowadays UAS equipped with a VIS-NIR multispectral camera (blue, green, red, red-edge, and NIR) represents a good and relatively cheap solution to assess plant status spatial information (by means of a limited set of spectral vegetation indices), representing important support in precision agriculture management during the growing season. While differences between UAS-based multispectral imagery and point-based spectroscopy are well discussed in the literature, their impact on plant status estimation by vegetation indices is not completely investigated in depth. The aim of this study was to assess the performance level of UAS-based multispectral (5 bands across 450-800nm spectral region with a spatial resolution of 5cm) imagery, reconstructed high-resolution satellite (Sentinel-2A) multispectral imagery (13 bands across 400-2500 nm with a spatial resolution of <2 m) through Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) approach, and point-based field spectroscopy (collecting 600 wavelengths across 400-1000 nm spectral region with a surface footprint of 1-2 cm) in a plant status estimation application, and then, using Bayesian regularization artificial neural network for leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and plant water status (LWP) prediction. The approach was realized within the Italian regional project GREASE, in an experimental vineyard of Greco of Feudi di San Gregorio winery (southern Italy), where detailed and precise records on soil and atmosphere systems, in-vivo plant monitoring of eco-physiological parameters have been conducted.
How to cite:
Ezzy, H., Brook, A., Monaco, E., Buonanno, M., Albrizio, R., Giorio, P., Erbaggio, A., Arena, C., Petracca, F., Cirillo, C., De Micco, V., and Bonfante, A.: The use of multi-level and multi-scale spectral data approach to evaluate the vineyard status., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5415, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5415, 2022.
In the inland of Southern Italy, climate change puts viticulture at risk of sustainability. Cultivar-specific cultivation techniques, also designed to suit peculiar pedoclimatic conditions of the vineyard, are needed to stabilize the productivity of vines, increase the grape quality, and improve the use efficiency of resources. Currently, the Italian legislation requires that vineyards are cultivated as rainfed to achieve quality and/or geographical indication labels. However, climate forecast models indicate that in the next decades there will be an increase in severity and duration of drought events that will affect the growth and productivity of vines beyond a threshold level making rainfed vineyards unsustainable.
The aim of this study was to verify whether foliar applications of basalt dust can mitigate the negative effects of drought stress in a vineyard of Falanghina grapevine in Southern Italy. The vineyard is in an inland area of Campania Region, at the premises of the La Guardiense farm, in Guardia Sanframondi, Benevento. A pedological survey, supported by a geophysical campaign, was performed to detect the soil spatial variability of the area and to identify the four subplots where the following treatments were imposed: 1) rainfed with the application of basalt powder on the leaf surface during the vine vegetative-productive cycle (i.e. from April to September); 2) rainfed,without distribution of basalt powder; 3) irrigated, with basalt powder; 4) irrigated, without basalt powder. The irrigation plan was defined weekly, applying a model considering precipitation and evapotranspiration, to reintegrate the water losses by transpiration. The growth and the ecophysiological traits of vines were monitored in the main phenological phases by measuring morphological parameters, fertility, leaf gas-exchanges, chlorophyll a fluorescence emission, leaf water potentials, and leaf anatomical characteristics, while the meteorological data and soil water content were collected through weather stations and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique. The production of each experimental plot was evaluated in terms of chemical characterization of musts and wines in order to assess the oenological potential. Specific attention was paid to the setup of protocols for ecophysiological measurements to avoid bias and evidence the occurrence of possible photoprotection mechanisms. Results of the first year of experiments indicated the occurrence of interaction between the two main factors in a year particularly dry. The repetition of the experiments in the next years will allow us to unravel both the interference with climatic variability and the long-term effects due to the combination of factors.
How to cite:
Petracca, F., Cirillo, C., Bonfante, A., Arena, C., Giulioli, M., Erbaggio, A., Damiano, N., Caputo, R., and De Micco, V.: Can the use of basalt dust mitigate the drought stress effects in grapevine? Setup of monitoring approach and protocols in a case study on Falanghina in Southern Italy, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5604, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5604, 2022.
The aim of this work was to understand of how parent material and plant cultivar interactively control soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and stabilization in vineyards.
Three experimental vineyards located in the Valpolicella area (North of Italy) were investigated. These sites were very close each other and, consequently, characterized by the same climatic conditions; at the same time, the corresponding soils developed from completely different parent materials (volcanic vs. calcareous). Two autochthonous grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, planted in 2003 and grown in organic system (no fertilization), were selected in all sites, and the corresponding soils sampled in triplicate with a 10-cm depth resolution. An uncultivated soil profile for each site was used as a control.
Soil samples (n. 88) were characterized for pH, EC, bulk density, total organic C (TOC), total N (TN), texture and major and trace elements. Moreover, particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral associated organic matter (MAOM) fractions were isolated and characterized by elemental analysis (CHNS).
Control soils showed different organic C stocks, ranging from 27 in the volcanic soil with a loamy sand texture to 90 t/ha in the two calcareous soils with a clay texture. A similar trend was observed for TN, ranging from 2 in the volcanic soil to 9 t/ha in the calcareous soils. Moreover, 2/3 of TOC were recovered as MAOM in both clay soils, whereas POM was the main fraction in the volcanic, loamy sand soils.
The cultivation of grapevine affected SOM accumulation. In particular, an increase (1.3-1.5×) of both TOC and TN in the top 30 cm of soil was observed in 2 out of 3 sites, while an opposite trend (0.7×) was recorded in one site. Preliminary data suggest that SOM accumulation is promoted in vineyard soils with lower organic C contents (and a wide range of texture) and through different mechanisms, whereas the cultivar factor did not affect TOC and TN stocks.
CZ thanks the Cantina Valpolicella Negrar for allowing soil sampling in its experimental vineyards.
How to cite:
Zaccone, C., Goldoni, S. E., Giannetta, B., Galluzzi, G., and Plaza, C.: Soil organic matter accumulation in vineyards as a function of cultivar and parent material, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8199, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8199, 2022.
Climate change threatens traditional wine regions with rising temperatures and irregular rainfall patterns. Meanwhile, this is an opportunity for cooler regions to grow quality wines. In Great Britain, the land dedicated to vineyards has quadrupled since 2000 to 3,800 hectares at present. The establishment and management of these new vineyards affect soil processes that underpin ecosystem services and agriculture sustainability. The lack of long-term soil management data in the new wine regions requires the development of experiments and models that inform growers of the best practices regarding their pedoclimatic constraints. One important vineyard operation is the control of weeds under vine rows. The progressive reduction in herbicides has given way to mechanical alternatives that may lead to further soil disruption.
In this study, we investigated the effect of different weeding operations on soil biophysical properties and vine physiology in the newly developing wine region in the South East of England. A trial was established in 2018 at the NIAB EMR research vineyard (Kent, England) as part of the Horizon2020 project “Integrated Weed Management: Practical Implementation and Solutions for Europe” (IWMPRAISE) consisting of four weed management systems: 1. blade mechanical weeder, 2. serrated disc mechanical weeder, 3. herbicide application, and 4. mowing. In 2021, we collected soil samples before (April) and after (September) the application of the weeding treatments. The soil microbial community composition has been characterized by 16S and ITS metabarcoding. Aggregate stability has been measured using SLAKES app. Yield, Nitrogen Balance Index, and vine vigour were measured to evaluate plant physiological development together with grape quality parameters.
We will discuss the changes in soil structure and microbial community composition under the different weed control management and how they are linked to vine physiology (vigour and foliar nutritional status), must quality attributes, and yield.
How to cite:
Paradelo Perez, M., Büchi, L., and O'Brien, F.: Effects of weed management on soil biophysical properties and vine physiology in an English vineyard , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-13367, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-13367, 2022.
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