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Analogue Planetary Research and Instruments

Analogue planetary research (APR) describes the development and testing
of space exploration strategies including scientific, technical,
operational, social and medical aspects in terrestrial environments
under simulated space or planetary conditions. As such, APR can be
performed in analogue planetary simulation, for example Lunar or Martian
analogue missions, where future crewed or robotic space exploration
missions are simulated and evaluated towards their performance.

With increasing popularity of analogue planetary simulations as
test-beds to develop and test technologies, techniques and operational
procedures for planetary missions in facilities such as HiSeas, MDRS,
LunAres, AATC, MMAARS or similar facilities, this session invites
contributions in the field of analogue planetary research including, but
not limited to:

- data analysis about sites for future exploration
- results and lessons-learned from Lunar / Martian analogue missions
- instruments development for analogue and space research
- field tests for space exploration hardware, software and techniques
- scientific contributions through analogue research
- geological field work during planetary simulations
- future analogue mission concepts
- transferring APR results into actual space exploration missions

Co-organized by PS11
Convener: Sebastian Hettrich | Co-conveners: Bernard Foing, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Charlotte PouwelsECSECS, Marc HeemskerkECSECS
| Thu, 26 May, 15:10–16:38 (CEST)
Room 0.51

Thu, 26 May, 15:10–16:40

Chairpersons: Bernard Foing, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Marc Heemskerk


On-site presentation
Jari Joutsenvaara et al.

An isolated but highly connected underground mine can be used as an analogue environment for the astronauts operating without sight to the home planet and with limited connectivity to the psychologically-important “home”. Similarly to the real-world space mission, the Earth-bound analogue mission can be run with limited resources, i.e., just enough for the duration of the mission. Such a location is available in Pyhäjärvi, Finland.

The conceptualisation of the use of the Pyhäsalmi mine as an analogue environment for space missions started in 2017 with an idea of a Marscape environment to be developed in the old part of the mine. The 1.4-km-deep base metal mine is ending its underground ore extraction (zinc, copper and pyrite as main products) in 2022. The concept is branded as Callio SpaceLab 1, and it has been developed by the Univerisity of Oulu, Finland, in cooperation with international partners. The Callio SpaceLab is part of the underground research centre Callio Lab 2, and it is one of the strategic research infrastructures of the University of Oulu.

The mine is located within a volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposit 3, with known mineralisation reaching a depth of 1.4 km. Deep overpressured ancient water-conducting fracture zones have occasionally been intersected by drilling. Water of this kind is accessible through a high-pressure valve system, making further analyses possible, especially from the astrobiological point of view.

The vast tunnel network with more than 100 km of tunnels, old main levels and operational areas give room for any activities ranging from technological testing to having analogue astronauts in total isolation. With the optical baseline and copper and wireless access, personnel and monitoring activities are possible through a 1+GB on-site internet connection, from the surface or securely through a VPN access. Moreover, there are two underground, hydroponic greenhouses built at the 660 m level. These can be used for analogue missions. The well-known geology gives many possibilities for scientific drilling, on-site analysis, and possibly in-situ resource utilisation.

The multidisciplinary University of Oulu has turned its eye to the stars. Many earthbound research topics are being evaluated from the space exploration viewpoint. These include mining technologies and processes 4, such as free crushing and comminution 5, dry beneficiation, digital construction, and geophysical methodologies.

We will present the possibilities brought by the Callio SpaceLab environment to the selected earthbound research topics and applications of space exploration.

1) Joutsenvaara, J. et al. The deep underground Callio SpaceLab, Finland - Sustainable living, sustaining life. EGUGA EGU21-14129 (2021).

2) Jalas, P. et al. Callio Lab, a new deep Underground Laboratory in the Pyhäsalmi mine. in Journal of Physics: Conference Series vol. 888 (2017).

3) Mäki, T. et al The Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi VMS Belt. in Mineral Deposits of Finland 507–530 (Elsevier Inc., 2015). doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-410438-9.00020-0.

4) Oulu Mining School University of Oulu. https://www.oulu.fi/en/university/faculties-and-units/faculty-technology/oulu-mining-school.

5) Hugger crusher. University of Oulu (2020).


How to cite: Joutsenvaara, J., Holma, M., Hynynen, I., Kotavaara, O., and Puputti, J.: Callio Spacelab - An underground laboratory for future exploration and analogue missions in Finland, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10308, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10308, 2022.

Marta Ciazela et al.

Data from martian rovers and martian meteorites suggest the presence of ore minerals on Mars (eg. pyrite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite). Three spectrometers: CRISM (The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars; spectral range 0.4-3.9 µm) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l; Activité, 0.4 - 5.1 µm ) and PFS (Planetary Fourier Spectrometer, 1.3-45.0 µm) onboard Mars Express (MEX) operate in near infrared (NIR) spectrum and provide information on the mineral composition of Mars but none of them is yet capable to efficiently identify sulfides. Detecting sulfide ore deposits is difficult in NIR due to spectral interferences with silicates. Due to the limited in-situ measurements by the Opportunity, Spirit, Curiosity, and Perseverance rovers, Mars mineralogical studies must be supported by studies of terrestrial analogs. One example is the Rio Tinto area in Andalusia, Spain, which hosts the largest known volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits on Earth. In this area, we analyzed satellite images in the infrared spectrum (ASTER, Landsat 8). We will compare these results to mineralogical data we will retrieve in the field during envisaged geological mapping in Spring 2022. By establishing our test field for remote sensing of sulfide deposits in a PFA site on Earth, we will be able to determine abundance thresholds for the detection of major sulfide phases on Mars and identify their key spectral features. Our results will help in 1) more efficient use of the current NIR Martian spectrometers to detect ore minerals, 2) designing new space instruments optimized for ore detection to include in future missions to Mars such as one developed at the Institute of Geological Sciences and the Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences called MIRORES (Martian far-IR ORE Spectrometer).

Acknowledgments: The presented research are supported by National Science Centre of Poland project OPUS19 no. 2020/37/B/ST10/01420 and Europlanet2024-research infrastructure grant no. 20-EPN2-020.

How to cite: Ciazela, M., Ciazela, J., Pieterek, B., and Marciniak, D.: The use of infrared remote sensing to prospect ore deposits on Mars. Preliminary results from a planetary field analog in the Rio Tinto mining area in Spain, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10325, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10325, 2022.

On-site presentation
Leander Schlarmann et al.

The EuroMoonMars Etna campaign (EMM-Etna) took place on Mt. Etna in Sicily between the 6th and 11th of July 2021. The scouting campaign was organised by ten students of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) EuroMoonMars program [1-3] in preparation for the DLR ARCHES (Autonomous Robotic Networks to Help Modern Societies) campaign and the ExoMars launch in 2022. During the ARCHES campaign on Mt. Etna in the summer of 2022, a team of robotics engineers will test various moon landing scenarios to show the capabilities of heterogeneous, autonomous, and interconnected robotic systems [4]. For the EMM-Etna campaign, the team simulated the landing of the REMMI Rover [5] on Mt. Etna as a Mars-analogue site, using a 360-degree remote-controlled camera holder to replicate a panoramic camera. Furthermore, samples were collected and analysed using an Ocean Optics UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer, a Field Raman, and a portable microscope. When working with a team of scientists and engineers the planning and organisation of the campaign are vital. Therefore, every crew member had their distinctive role during the mission, starting from being responsible for individual instruments or the outreach during the campaign to roles such as planner and data officer. Additionally, a mission protocol for the operational steps of the landing of the rover in the volcanic environment was implemented to assure smooth operation in the field.


[1]          https://moonbasealliance.com/ilewg

[2]          https://euromoonmars.space/

[3]          H. Reilly et al. "Instruments Operations, Science and Innovation in Expedition Support: EuroMoonMars-Etna campaign 2021", European Planetary Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-848, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-848, 2021.

[4]          M. J. Schuster et al. "The ARCHES Space-Analogue Demonstration Mission: Towards Heterogeneous Teams of Autonomous Robots for Collaborative Scientific Sampling in Planetary Exploration", IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5.4 (2020): 5315-5322.

[5]          C. Mohan et al. "Rover testing for lunar science and innovation", European Planetary Science Congress 2021, online, 13–24 Sep 2021, EPSC2021-850, https://doi.org/10.5194/epsc2021-850, 2021.


How to cite: Schlarmann, L., Ehreiser, A., McGrath, K., Brady, G., Mohan, C., Reilly, H., Lakomiec, P., De Palma, G., Hönes, C., Rusticus, Y., Foing, B., and Wedler, A.: EuroMoonMars Etna Campaign 2021: Logistics and Mission Protocol, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6113, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6113, 2022.

Marc Heemskerk et al.

During the summer of 2021, the first CHILL-ICE analogue campaign was held in and around the Stefánshellir Lava tube in the Hallmundarhraun lava field, in the West of Iceland. Here we present some of the campaign results of the two analogue missions that made up this research campaign.

After initial EuroMoonMars campagns in 2018 and 2020, the project group, named CHILL-ICE (Construction of a Habitat Inside a Lunar-analogue Lavatube - Iceland) was founded. More than 30 young researchers, students, and collaborators from 16 countries, worked closely together and two short analogue astronaut missions were held. These missions were the main goal of this campaign, where in the future also a stronger focus on the robot-human interfaces and exploration of subsurface cave systems is planned.