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New frontiers of multiscale monitoring, analysis, modeling and decisional support (DSS) of environmental systems

Environmental systems often span spatial and temporal scales covering different orders of magnitude. The session is oriented toward collecting studies relevant to understand multiscale aspects of these systems and in proposing adequate multi-platform and inter-disciplinary surveillance networks monitoring tools systems. It is especially aimed to emphasize the interaction between environmental processes occurring at different scales. In particular, special attention is devoted to the studies focused on the development of new techniques and integrated instrumentation for multiscale monitoring of high natural risk areas, such as volcanic, seismic, energy exploitation, slope instability, floods, coastal instability, climate changes, and another environmental context.
We expect contributions derived from several disciplines, such as applied geophysics, geology, seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, remote and proximal sensing, volcanology, geotechnical, soil science, marine geology, oceanography, climatology, and meteorology. In this context, the contributions in analytical and numerical modeling of geological and environmental processes are also expected.
Finally, we stress that the inter-disciplinary studies that highlight the multiscale properties of natural processes analyzed and monitored by using several methodologies are welcome.

Co-organized by AS5/CL5.3/ERE1/ESSI4/GD9/NH6/NP3
Convener: Pietro Tizzani | Co-conveners: Antonello Bonfante, Francesca Bianco, Raffaele Castaldo, Nemesio M. Pérez
| Mon, 23 May, 15:55–18:30 (CEST)
Room 0.51

Mon, 23 May, 15:10–16:40

Chairpersons: Antonello Bonfante, Raffaele Castaldo, Francesca Bianco


Thomas DeFelice

Atmospheric water management or cloud seeding technologies might be effectively applied to assess the impacts from changing climate on water security and renewable energy use. During said assessments it might be possible to exploit their observations to mitigate the negative impacts from climate change by enhancing the water supply as part of a water security plan, and/or by effectively removing low-level supercooled cloud decks/fogs to facilitate renewable energy use providing added sunshine during typically overcast day-time periods. Cloud seeding technologies are used to positively affect the natural hydrologic cycle, while respecting and avoiding damage to public health, safety and the environment.  This talk summarizes atmospheric water management technologies and their use, how these technologies might be applied as part of a strategy to ensure water security and how their application might provide a potential opportunity for recouping lost energy potential.

How to cite: DeFelice, T.: The role atmospheric water management technologies might play in Nature-based solutions (NbS), EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-1941, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-1941, 2022.

Ella Lahav et al.

Exploration, production, extraction and transport of fossil fuels in the marine environment are accompanied by an inherent risk to the surrounding ecosystems as a result of the on-going operations or due to technical faults, accidents or geo-hazards. Limited work has been conducted on potential impacts on the Mediterranean marine ecosystem due to the lack of information on organism responses to hydrocarbon pollution. In this study, we used the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modeling software which is designed for policy evaluation and provides assessments of impacts of various stressors on an ecosystem. An existing EwE based Ecospace food-web model of the Israeli Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was enhanced to include local organism response curves to various levels of contaminants, such as crude oil, in the water and on the sea floor sediments. The goal of this study is to evaluate and quantify the possible ecological impacts of pollution events that might occur due to fossil fuel exploitation related activities. Multiple spatial static and dynamic scenarios, describing various pollution quantities and a range of habitats and locations were constructed. Using the enhanced Ecospace models for assessing the potential impacts of gas exploitation on organism biomass, the spatial and temporal distribution and food-web functioning was tested and evaluated. The results of this study will show a quantitative assessment of the expected ecological impacts that could assist decision makers in developing management and conservation strategies.

How to cite: Lahav, E., Astrahan, P., Ofir, E., Gal, G., and Bookman, R.: Modeling Potential Impacts of Gas Exploitation on the Israeli Marine Ecosystem Using Ecopath with Ecosim, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5431, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5431, 2022.

Arindam Roy et al.

Indian air quality monitoring guideline is directly adopted from World Health Organization (1977) guidelines without place-based modification. According to Indian air quality guidelines (2003), the location of monitoring sites should be determined from air quality modeling and previous air quality information. If such information is not available, the use of emission densities, wind data, land-use patterns and population information is recommended for prioritizing areas for air quality monitoring. The mixed land-use distribution over Indian cities and randomly distributed sources pose serious challenges, as Indian cities (unlike in other parts of the world) are characterized by a lack of distinct residential, commercial, and industrial regions, so the concept of “homogeneous emissions” (which have guided site monitoring decisions) simply does not apply. In addition, the decision-making data emission and population information, are either not available or outdated for Indian cities. Unlike the cities in Global North, the Indian urban-scape has distinguished features in terms of land use, source and population distribution which has not been addressed in air quality guidelines.

We have developed an implementable place-based framework to address the above problem of establishing effective new air quality stations in India and other regions with complex land-use patterns. Four Indian million-plus cities were selected for the present study; Lucknow, Pune, Nashik and Kanpur. We broadly classified air quality monitoring objectives into three; monitoring population exposure, measurements for compliance with the national standards and characterization of sources. Each monitoring station over four cities was evaluated and metadata has been created for each station to identify its monitoring objective for each of the stations. We find that present air quality monitoring networks are highly inadequate in characterizing average population exposure throughout each city, as current stations are predominantly located at the site of pedestrian exposure, and are not representative of the city-wide exposure.

Possible new sites for monitoring were identified using night-time light data, satellite-derived PM2.5, existing emission inventories, land-use patterns and other ancillary open-sourced data. Over Lucknow, Pune and Nashik, setting up stations at highly populated areas is recommended to fulfill the knowledge gaps on the average population exposure. Over Kanpur, it was recommended to incorporate stations to measure short-term pollution exposure in traffic and industrial sites. Rapidly developing peri-urban regions were identified using night-time light data and recommendations were provided for setting up monitoring stations in these regions.

How to cite: Roy, A., Nenes, A., and Takahama, S.: The framework for improving air quality monitoring over Indian cities, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6226, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6226, 2022.

David Bastviken et al.

Appropriate methods to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are critical for our ability to detect fluxes, understand regulation, make adequate priorities for climate change mitigation efforts, and verify that these efforts are effective. Ideally, we need reliable, accessible, and affordable measurements at relevant scales. We surveyed present GHG flux measurement methods, identified from an analysis of >11000 scientific publications and a questionnaire to sector professionals and analysed method pros and cons versus needs for novel methodology. While existing methods are well-suited for addressing certain questions, this presentation presents fundamental limitations relative to GHG flux measurement needs for verifiable and transparent action to mitigate many types of emissions. Cost and non-academic accessibility are key aspects, along with fundamental measurement performance. These method limitations contribute to the difficulties in verifying GHG mitigation efforts for transparency and accountability under the Paris agreement. Resolving this mismatch between method capacity and societal needs is urgently needed for effective climate mitigation. This type of methodological mismatch is common but seems to get high priority in other knowledge domains. The obvious need to prioritize development of accurate diagnosis methods for effective treatments in healthcare is one example. This presentation provides guidance regarding the need to prioritize the development of novel GHG flux measurement methods.

How to cite: Bastviken, D., Wilk, J., Duc, N. T., Gålfalk, M., Karlson, M., Neset, T., Opach, T., Enrich Prast, A., and Sundgren, I.: Measuring greenhouse gas fluxes – what methods do we have versus what methods do we need?, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6468, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6468, 2022.

Saverio De Vito et al.

Recent advances in IoT and chemical sensors calibration technologies have led to the proposal of Hierarchical air quality monitoring networks. They are indeed complex systems relying on sensing nodes which differs from size, cost, accuracy, technology, maintenance needs while having the potential to empower smart cities and communiities with increased knowledge  on the highly spatiotemporal variance Air Quality phenomenon (see [1]). The AirHeritage project, funded by Urban Innovative Action program have developed and implemented a hierarchical monitoring system which allows for offering real time assessments and model based forecasting services including 7 fixed low cost sensors station, one (mobile and temporary located) regulatory grade analyzer and a citizen science based ultra high resolution AQ mapping tool based on field calibrated mobile analyzers. This work will analyze the preliminary results of the project by focusing on the machine learning driven sensors calibration methodology and citizen science based air quality mapping campaigns. Thirty chemical and particulate matter multisensory devices have been deployed in Portici, a 4Km2 city located 7 km south of Naples which is  affected by significant car traffic. The devices have been  entrusted to local citizens association for implementing 1 preliminary validation campaign (see [2]) and 3 opportunistic 2-months duration monitoring campaigns. Each 6 months, the devices undergoes a minimum 3 weeks colocation period with a regulatory grade analyzer allowing for training and validation dataset building. Multilinear regression sw components are trained to reach ppb level accuracy (MAE <10ug/m^3 for NO2 and O3, <15ug/M^3 for PM2.5 and PM10, <300ug/M^3 for CO) and encoded in a companion smartphone APP which allows the users for real time assessment of personal exposure. In particular, a novel AQI strongly based on European Air Quality Index ([3]) have been developed for AQ real time data communication. Data have been collected using a custom IoT device management platform entrusted with inception, storage and data-viz roles. Finally data have been used to build UHR (UHR) AQ maps, using spatial binning approach (25mx25m) and median computation for each bin receiving more than 30 measurements during the campaign. The resulting maps have hown the possibility to allow for pinpointing city AQ hotpots which will allows fact-based remediation policies in cities lacking objective technologies to locally assess concentration exposure.  


[1] Nuria Castell et Al., Can commercial low-cost sensor platforms contribute to air quality monitoring and exposure estimates?, Environment International, Volume 99, 2017, Pages 293-302 ISSN 0160-4120, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2016.12.007.

[2] De Vito, S, et al., Crowdsensing IoT Architecture for Pervasive Air Quality and Exposome Monitoring: Design, Development, Calibration, and Long-Term Validation. Sensors 202121, 5219. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155219

[3] https://airindex.eea.europa.eu/Map/AQI/Viewer/

How to cite: De Vito, S., Fattoruso, G., and Toscano, D.:  An IoT based approach to ultra high resolution air quality mapping thorigh field calibrated monitoring devices, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-9376, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-9376, 2022.

Stefano Albanese et al.

In 2015, the "Campania Trasparente" project (http://www.campaniatrasparente.it), a monitoring plan focused on assessing the environmental conditions of the territory of the Campania region, started thanks to the financial support of the regional government. The project's general management was in charge of the Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Southern Italy (IZSM).
In the project framework, the collection and analysis of many environmental and biological samples (including soil and air and human blood specimen) were completed. The primary aim of the whole project was to explore the existence of a link between the presence of some illnesses in the local population and the status of the environment and generate a reliable database to assess local foodstuff healthiness.
Six research units were active in the framework of the project. As for soil and air, the Environmental Geochemistry Working Group (EGWG) at the Department of Earth, Environment and Resources Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, was in charge of most of the research activities. Specifically, the EGWG completed the elaboration of the data on potentially toxic metals/metalloids (PTMs) and organic contaminants (PAHs, OCPs, Dioxins) in the regional soils and air.
The monitoring of air contaminants lasted more than one year, and it was completed employing passive air samplers (PAS) and deposimeters spread across the whole region.
Three volumes were published, including statistical elaborations and geochemical maps of all the contaminants analysed to provide both the regional government and local scientific and professional community with a reliable tool to approach local environmental problems starting from a sound base of knowledge.
Geochemical distribution patterns of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), for example, were used to establish local geochemical background/baseline intervals for those metals (naturally enriched in regional soils) found to systematically overcome the national environmental guidelines (set by the Legislative Decree 152/2006).
Data from the air, analysed in terms of concentration and time variation, were, instead, fundamental to discriminate the areas of the regional territory characterised by heavy contamination associated with the emission of organic compounds from anthropic sources.

The integration of all the data generated within the "Campania Trasparente" framework, including the data proceeding from the Susceptible Population Exposure Study (SPES), focusing on human biomonitoring (based on blood), allowed the development of a regional-wide conceptual model to be used as a base to generate highly specialised risk assessments for regional population and local communities affected by specific environmental problems.

How to cite: Albanese, S., Lima, A., Guarino, A., Qu, C., Cicchella, D., Esposito, M., Cerino, P., Pizzolante, A., and De Vivo, B.: The "Campania Trasparente" multiscale and multimedia monitoring project: an unprecedented experience in Italy., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10603, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10603, 2022.

Discussion and questions

Mon, 23 May, 17:00–18:30

Chairpersons: Pietro Tizzani, Nemesio M. Pérez, Raffaele Castaldo

Haitham Ezzy et al.

Increasing the organic matter content of the soil has been presented in the:”4per1000″ proposal as a significant climate mitigation measure able to support the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 13 - Climate Action of United Nations.

At the same time, the report of the Mission Board for Soil health and Food, "Caring for soil is caring for life," indicates that one of the targets that must be reached by 2030 is the conservation and increase of soil organic carbon stock.  De facto, the panel clearly indicates the soil organic carbon as one of the indicators that can be used to monitor soil health, and at the same time, if the current soil use is sustainable or not.

Thus it is to be expected that the monitoring of SOC will become requested to check and monitor the sustainability of agricultural practices realized in the agricultural areas. For all the above reasons, the development of a reliable and fast indirect methods to evaluate the SOC is necessary to support different stakeholders (government, municipality, farmer) to monitor SOC at different spatial scales (national, regional, local).

Over the past two decades, data mining approaches in spatial modeling of soil organic carbon using machine learning techniques and artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the amount of carbon in the soil using remote sensing data has been widely considered. Accordingly, this study aims to design an accurate and robust neural network model to estimate the soil organic carbon using the data-based field-portable spectrometer and laboratory-based visible and near-infrared (VIS/NIR, 350−2500 nm) spectroscopy of soils. The measurements will be on two sets of the same soil samples, the first by the standard protocol of requested laboratories for soil scanning, The second set of the soil samples without any cultivation to simulate the soil condition in the sampling field emphasizes the predictive capabilities to achieve fast, cheap and accurate soil status. Carbon soil parameter will determine using, multivariate regression method used for prediction with Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression (Lasso) in interval way (high, medium, and low). The results will increase accuracy, precision, and cost-effectiveness over traditional ex-situ methods.

The contribution has been realized within the international EIT Food project MOSOM (Mapping of Soil Organic Matter; https://www.eitfood.eu/projects/mosom)

How to cite: Ezzy, H., Brook, A., Ciavatta, C., Ventura, F., Vignudelli, M., and Bonfante, A.: The evaluation of soil organic carbon through VIS-NIR spectroscopy to support the soil health monitoring, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12331, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12331, 2022.

Cvetan Sinadinovski and Stoe Smiljkov

Two moderate earthquakes with magnitude ML5.0 happened on 11th of November 2020 near the Mavrovo lake in northwestern Macedonia. The lake is an artificial lake with a dam built between 1947 and filled by 1953. Its maximum length is 10km, width is 5km and the depth is 50m. Given its water volume, it is possible that geological factors causing earthquakes could also affect the hydrobiological characteristics of the flow system surrounding the lake.

A list of 180 earthquakes registered by the local stations with magnitudes equal or greater than ML1.7 was analysed in terms of temporal and spatial distribution around the lake. No specific clustering of events was noticed in the foreshock period from July 2020. In the aftershock period, the most numerous events lasted about a month after the main events. However, there was another period of increased seismicity during March 2021, followed by gradual decrease onwards. The distribution of epicentres was mainly along the terrain of Radika river and a few smaller tributaries to the lake system.

A comparative analysis was done with the dataset collected by the program run at the department of Biology at the Faculty of Natural Sciences, University UKIM in Skopje. Environmental investigations in Europe have shown stress reactions of hydrobionts in respect to water temperature and heavy metal pollution, for example the influence of radioactive radiation. Earthquake-induced seismic changes most often affect the chemical-physical properties of water quality and temperature stratification, i.e., mixing of water masses. In our research, we analyse for the first time the relationship between the seismological activities in the Jul 2020-Nov 2021 period in details and a possible impact to environment thru the population of macrozoobenthos from Mavrovo Lake.

How to cite: Sinadinovski, C. and Smiljkov, S.: Numerical analysis of Seismic and Hydrobiological data around lake Mavrovo in the period Jul.2020-Nov.2021, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6452, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6452, 2022.

Lía Pitti Pimienta et al.

Tenerife (2,034 km2), the largest island of the Canarian archipelago, is characterized by three volcanic rifts NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S oriented, with a central volcanic structure in the middle, Las Cañadas Caldera, hosting Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. The North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ) is one of the youngest and most active volcanic systems of the island, where three historical eruptions (Boca Cangrejo in 16th Century, Arenas Negras in 1706 and Chinyero in 1909) have occurred, whereas the North-East Rift-Zone (NERZ) is more complex than the others due to the existence of Pedro Gil stratovolcano that broke the main NE-SW structure 0.8 Ma ago. The most recent eruptive activity along the NERZ took place during 1704 and 1705 across 13 km of fissural eruption in Siete Fuentes (Arafo-Fasnia). To monitor potential volcanic activity through a multidisciplinary approach, diffuse degassing studies have been carried out since 2000 at the NWRZ (72 km2) and since 2001 at the NERZ (210 km2) in a yearly basis. Long-term variations in the diffuse CO2 output in the NWRZ have shown a temporal correlation with the onsets of seismic activity at Tenerife, supporting unrest of the volcanic system, as is also suggested by anomalous seismic activity recorded in the studied area during April, 2004 and October, 2016 (Hernández et al., 2017). In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment were performed according to the accumulation chamber method using a portable non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor. Soil CO2 efflux values for the 2021 survey ranged between non-detectable values and 104 g·m-2·d-1, with an average value of 8 g·m-2·d-1 for NWRZ. For NERZ, soil CO2 efflux values ranged between non-detectable values and 79 g·m2·d-1, with an average value of 7 g·m-2·d-1. The probability plot technique applied to the data allowed to distinguish different geochemical populations. Background population represented 49.2% and 74.0% of the total data for NWRZ and NERZ, respectively, with a mean value (1.7 - 2.0 g·m-2·d-1) similar to the background values calculated for other volcanic systems in the Canary Islands with similar soils, vegetation and climate (Hernández et al. 2017). Peak population represented 0.9 and 0.7% for NWRZ and NERZ, respectively and with a mean value of 45 and 57 g·m-2·d-1. Soil CO2 efflux contour maps were constructed to identify spatial-temporal anomalies and to quantify the total CO2 emission using the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) interpolation method. Diffuse emission rate of 506 ± 22 t·d-1 for NWRZ and 1,509 ± 58 t·d-1 NERZ were obtained. The normalized CO2 emission value by area was estimated in 7.03 t·d-1·km-1 for NWRZ and in 7.2 t·d-1·km-1 for NERZ. The monitorization of the diffuse CO2 emission contributes to detect early warning signals of volcanic unrest, especially in areas where visible degassing is non-existent as in the Tenerife NWRZ and NERZ.

Hernández et al. (2017). Bull Volcanol, 79:30, DOI 10.1007/s00445-017-1109-9.

How to cite: Pitti Pimienta, L., Rodríguez, F., Asensio-Ramos, M., Melián, G., Di Nardo, D., Martín-Lorenzo, A., Alonso, M., García-Hernández, R., Ortega, V., Martínez Van Dorth, D., Cordero, M., Albertos, T., Hernández, P. A., and Pérez, N. M.: Geochemical monitoring of the Tenerife North-East and North West Rift Zones by means of diffuse degassing surveys, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-6374, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-6374, 2022.

Daniel Di Nardo et al.

Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) suffered a volcanic eruption that started on September 19 and finished on December 13, 2021. The eruption is considered the longest volcanic event since data are available on the island: it finished after 85 days and 8 hours of duration and 1,219 hectares of lava flows. La Palma Island is the fifth in extension (706 km2) and the second in elevation (2,423 m a.s.l.) of the Canarian archipelago. Cumbre Vieja volcano, where the volcanic activity has taken place exclusively in the last 123 ka, forms the sand outhern part of the island. In 2017, two remarkable seismic swarms interrupted a seismic silence of 46 years in Cumbre Vieja volcano with earthquakes located beneath Cumbre Vieja volcano at depths ranging between 14 and 28 km with a maximum magnitude of 2.7. Five additional seismic swarms were registered in 2020 and four in 2021. The eruption started ~1 week after the start of the last seismic swarm.

As part of the INVOLCAN volcano monitoring program of Cumbre Vieja, soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) is being monitored at five sites in Cumbre Vieja using SARAD RTM2010-2 RTM 1688-2 portable radon monitors. 222Rn and 220Rn are two radioactive isotopes of radon with a half-life of 3.8 days and 54.4 seconds, respectively. Both isotopes can diffuse easily trough the soil and can be detected at very low concentrations, but their migration in large scales, ten to hundreds of meters, is supported by advection (pressure changes) and is related to the existence of a carrier gas source (geothermal fluids or fluids linked to magmatic and metamorphic phenomena), and to the existence of preferential routes for degassing (deep faults). Previous results on the monitoring of soil Rn in the Canary Islands with volcano monitoring purposes are promising (Padilla et al, 2013).     

The most remarkable result of the Rn monitoring network of Cumbre Vieja was observed in LPA01 station, located at the north-east of Cumbre Vieja. Since mid-March 2021, soil 222Rn activity experienced a sustained until reaching maximum values of ~1.0E+4 222Rn Bq/m3 days before the eruption onset. During the eruptive period, soil 222Rn activity showed a gradual decreasing trend. The increase of magmatic-gas pressure due to magma movement towards the surface and the transport of anomalous 222Rn originated from hydrofracturing of rock, from direct magma degassing or from both, is the most plausible explanation for the increases in radon activity before the eruption onset observed at LPA01. As soil gas radon activity increased prior to the eruption onset, this monitoring technique can be efficiently used as an initial warning sign of the pressurization of magma beneath La Palma Island.

Padilla, G. D., et al. (2013), Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 14, 432–447, doi:10.1029/2012GC004375.


How to cite: Di Nardo, D., Padrón, E., Rodríguez-Pérez, C., Padilla, G. D., Barrancos, J., Hernández, P. A., Asensio-Ramos, M., and Pérez, N. M.: Soil gas Rn monitoring at Cumbre Vieja prior and during the 2021 eruption, La Palma, Canary Islands, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10290, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10290, 2022.

Cecilia Amonte et al.

The oceanic active volcanic island of Tenerife (2,034 km2) is the largest of the Canarian archipelago. There are more than 1,000 galleries (horizontal drillings) in the island, which are used for groundwater exploitation and allow reaching the aquifer at different depths and elevations. This work presents the first extensive study on the temporal variation of dissolved gases in groundwaters from Fuente del Valle and San Fernando galleries (Tenerife, Spain) since April 2016 to June 2020. This investigation is focused on the chemical and isotopic content of several dissolved gas species (CO2, He, O2, N2 and CH4) present in the groundwaters and its relationship with the seismic activity registered in the island. The results show CO2 as the major dissolved gas specie in the groundwater from both galleries presenting a mean value of 260 cm3STP·L-1 and 69 cm3STP·L-1 for Fuente del Valle and San Fernando, respectively. The average δ13C-CO2 data (-3.9‰ for Fuente del Valle and -6.4‰ for San Fernando) suggest a clear endogenous origin as result of interaction of them with deep-origin fluid. A bubbling gas sample from Fuente del Valle gallery was analysed, obtaining a CO2 rich gas (87 Vol.%) with a considerable He enrichment (7.3 ppm). The isotopic data of both components in the bubbling gas support the results obtained in the dissolved gases, showing an endogenous component that could be affected by the different activity of the hydrothermal system. During the study period, an important seismic swarm occurred on October 2, 2016, followed by an increase of the seismic activity in and around Tenerife. After this event, important geochemical variations were registered in the dissolved gas species, such as dissolved CO2 and He content and the CO2/O2, He/CO2, He/N2 and CH4/CO2 ratios. These findings suggest an injection of fluids into the hydrothermal system during October 2016, a fact that evidences the connection between the groundwaters and the hydrothermal system. The present work demonstrates the importance of dissolved gases studies in groundwater for volcanic surveillance.

How to cite: Amonte, C., Pérez, N. M., Melián, G. V., Asensio-Ramos, M., Padrón, E., Hernández, P. A., and Meire Feijoo, A.: Temporal evolution of dissolved gases in groundwater of Tenerife Island, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8458, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8458, 2022.

Daniela Stroppiana et al.

Land surface temperature (LST) is a manifestation of the surface thermal environment (LSTE) and an important driver of physical processes of surface land energy balance at local to global scales. Tenerife is one of the most heterogeneous islands among the Canaries from a climatological and bio-geographical point of view. We study the surface thermal conditions of the volcanic island with remote sensing techniques. In particular, we consider a time series of Landsat 8 (L8) level 2A images for the period 2013 to 2019 to estimate LST from surface reflectance (SR) and brightness Temperature (BT) images. A total of 26 L8 dates were selected based on cloud cover information from metadata (land cloud cover < 10%) to estimate pixel-level LST with an algorithm based on Radiative Transfer Equations (RTE). The algorithm relies on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for estimating emissivity pixel by pixel. We apply the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) that revealed to be a powerful tool for data mining and, in particular, to separate multivariate LST dataset into a finite number of components, which have the maximum relative statistical independence. The ICA allowed separating the land surface temperature time series of Tenerife into 11 components that can be associated with geographic and bioclimatic zones of the island. The first ten components are related to physical factors, the 11th component, on the contrary, presented a more complex pattern resulting possibly from its small amplitude and the combination of various factors into a single component. The signal components recognized with the ICA technique, especially in areas of active volcanism, could be the basis for the space-time monitoring of the endogenous component of the LST due to surface hydrothermal and/or geothermal activity. Results are encouraging, although the 16-day revisit frequency of Landsat reduces the frequency of observation that could be increased by applying techniques of data fusion of medium and coarse spatial resolution images. The use of such systems for automatic processing and analysis of thermal images may in the future be a fundamental tool for the surveillance of the background activity of active and dormant volcanoes worldwide.

How to cite: Stroppiana, D., Przeor, M., D’Auria, L., and Tizzani, P.: Analysis of thermal regimes at Tenerife(Canary Islands) with Independent Component Analysis applied to time series of Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperatures, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-8580, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-8580, 2022.

Germán D. Padilla et al.

Tenerife Island (2,034 km2) is the largest island of the Canarian archipelago. Its structure is controlled by a volcano-tectonic rift-system with NW, NE and NS directions, with the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic system located in the intersection. Teide is 3,718 m.a.s.l. high and its last eruption occurred in 1798 through an adventive cone of Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. Although Teide volcano shows a weak fumarolic system, volcanic gas emissions observed in the summit cone consist mostly of diffuse CO2 degassing.


In this study we investigate the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic system evolution using a comprehensive diffuse degassing geochemical dataset 216 geochemical surveys have been performed during the period 1999-2021 at the summit crater of Teide Volcano covering an area of 6,972 m2. Diffuse CO2 emission was estimated in 38 sampling sites, homogeneously distributed inside the crater, by means of a portable non dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 fluxmeter using the accumulation chamber method. Additionally, soil gases were sampled at 40 cm depth using a metallic probe with a 60 cc hypodermic syringe and stored in 10 cc glass vials and send to the laboratory to analyse the He and H2 content by means of quadrupole mass spectrometry and micro-gas chromatography, respectively. To estimate the He and H2 emission rates at each sampling point, the diffusive component was estimated following the Fick’s law and the convective emission component model was estimated following the Darcy’s law. In all cases, spatial distribution maps were constructed averaging the results of 100 simulations following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) algorithm, in order to estimate CO2, He and H2 emission rates.


During 22 years of the studied period, CO2 emissions ranged from 2.0 to 345.9 t/d, He emissions between 0.013 and 4.5 kg/d and H2 between 1.3 and 64.4 kg/d. On October 2, 2016, a seismic swarm of long-period events was recorded on Tenerife followed by an increase of the seismic activity in and around the island (D’Auria et al., 2019; Padrón et al., 2021). Several geochemical parameters showed significant changes during ∼June–August of 2016 and 1–2 months before the occurrence of the October 2, 2016, long-period seismic swarm (Padrón et al., 2021). Diffuse degassing studies as useful to conclude that the origin of the 2 October 2016 seismic swarm an input of magmatic fluids triggered by an injection of fresh magma and convective mixing. Thenceforth, relatively high values have been obtained in the three soil gases species studied at the crater of Teide, with the maximum emission rates values registered during 2021. This increase reflects a process of pressurization of the volcanic-hydrothermal system. This increment in CO2, He and H2 emissions indicate changes in the activity of the system and can be useful to understand the behaviour of the volcanic system and to forecast future volcanic activity. Monitoring the diffuse degassing rates has demonstrated to be an essential tool for the prediction of future seismic–volcanic unrest, and has become important to reduce volcanic risk in Tenerife.

D'Auria, L., et al. (2019). J. Geophys. Res.124,8739-8752

Padrón, E., et al., (2021). J. Geophys. Res.126,e2020JB020318

How to cite: Padilla, G. D., Rodríguez, F., Asensio-Ramos, M., Melián, G. V., Alonso, M., Martín-Lorenzo, A., Coldwell, B. C., Rodríguez, C., Santana de León, J. M., Padrón, E., Barrancos, J., D'Auria, L., Hernández, P. A., and Pérez, N. M.: Long-term variations of diffuse CO2, He and H2 at the summit crater of Teide volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands during 1999-2021, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-10659, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-10659, 2022.

Monika Przeor et al.

On the 11th of September of 2021, a seismic sequence began on La Palma (Canary Islands), followed by a rapid and significant ground deformation reaching more than 10 cm in the vertical component of the permanent GNSS station ARID (Aridane) operated by the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN). The pre-eruptive episode lasted only nine days and was characterized by an intense deformation in the western part of the island and intense seismicity with the upward migration of hypocenters. After the onset of the eruption, which occurred on the 19th of September of 2021, the deformation increased a few cm more, reaching a maximum on the 22nd of September and subsequently showing a nearly steady deflation trend in the following months.

We obtained a Sentinel-1 DInSAR dataset along both ascending and descending orbits, starting from the 27th of February of 2021 and the 13th of January of 2021, respectively. We selected the study area at the radial distance of 13 km from the eruption point (Latitude: 28.612; Longitude: -17.866) to realize an inverse model of the geometry of the causative sources of the observed ground deformation. While the ascending orbit that passed on the 18th of September indicated mainly a dike intrusion in the shallow depth, the descending orbit from the 20th of September seemed to indicate a deformation caused by at least two sources: the pre-eruptive intrusion and the nearly-vertical eruptive dike. The deeper source spatially coincides with the location of most of the pre-eruptive volcano-tectonic hypocenters.

Finally, based on the preliminary inverse model of the DInSAR dataset, we applied the geodetic imaging of D’Auria et al., (2015) to retrieve the time-varying spatial distribution of volumetric ground deformation sources. The final results show the kinematics of the upward dike propagation and magma ascent.



D’Auria, L., Pepe, S., Castaldo, R., Giudicepietro, F., Macedonio, G., Ricciolino, P., ... & Zinno, I. (2015). Magma injection beneath the urban area of Naples: a new mechanism for the 2012–2013 volcanic unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera. Scientific reports, 5(1), 1-11.

How to cite: Przeor, M., Barrancos, J., Castaldo, R., D’Auria, L., Pepe, A., Pepe, S., Sagiya, T., Solaro, G., and Tizzani, P.: Geodetic imaging of the magma ascent process during the 2021 Cumbre Vieja (La Palma, Canary Islands) eruption, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-4876, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-4876, 2022.

Giuseppe Solaro et al.

The increasingly widespread use of space geodesy has resulted in numerous, high-quality surface deformation data sets. DInSAR, for instance, is a well-established satellite technique for investigating tectonically active and volcanic areas characterized by a wide spatial extent of the inherent deformation. These geodetic data can provide important constraints on the involved fault geometry and on its slip distribution as well as on the type and position of an active magmatic source. For this reason, over last years, many researchers have developed robust and semiautomatic methods for inverting suitable models to infer the source type and geometry characteristics from the retrieved surface deformations.

In this work we will present a new software we have implemented, named easyGeoModels, that can be used by geophysicists but also by less skilled users who are interested in sources modeling to determine ground deformation in both seismo-tectonic and volcanic contexts. This software is characterized by some innovative aspects compared to existing similar tools, such as (i) the presence of an easy-to-use graphic interface that allows the user, even if not particularly expert, to manage the data to be inverted, the input parameters of one or more sources, the choice of the deformation source (s), effective and simple way; (ii) the possibility of selecting the GPS data to be inverted, simply by selecting the area of interest: in this case the software will automatically consider for the inversion only the GPS stations present in the selected area and will download the relative data from the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory site; (iii) the generation of output files in Geotiff, KMZ and Shapefile format, which allow a faster and more immediate visualization through GIS tools or Google Earth.

Finally, as applications, we will show some preliminary results obtained through the easyGeoModels software on areas characterized by huge deformation both in a volcanic context, such as that of the Campi Flegrei caldera, and a seismo-tectonic one, as for the case of the Amatrice earthquake (central Italy) which occurred on 24 August 2016.

How to cite: Solaro, G., Buonanno, S., Castaldo, R., De Luca, C., Fusco, A., Manzo, M., Pepe, S., Tizzani, P., Valerio, E., Zeni, G., Atzori, S., and Lanari, R.: EasyGeoModels: a New Tool to Investigate Seismic and Volcanic Deformations Retrieved through Geodetic Data. Software Implementation and Examples on the Campi Flegrei Caldera and the 2016 Amatrice Earthquake , EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-2263, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-2263, 2022.

Ada De Matteo et al.

Volcanoes are dynamically active systems in continuous evolution. This behaviour is emphasized by many different processes, e.g., fumarolic activity, earthquakes, volcanic slope instabilities and volcanic climax eruptions. Volcanic edifices experience slope instability as consequence of different solicitations such as i) eruption mechanism and depositional process, ii) tectonic stresses, iii) extreme weather conditions; all these events induce the mobilization of unstable fractured volcanic flanks.

Several methods exist to gather information about slope stability and to map trajectories followed by individual falling rocks in individual slopes. These methods involve direct field observation, laser scanning, terrestrial or aerial photogrammetry. Such information is useful to infer the likely location of future rockfalls, and represent a valuable input for the application of three-dimensional models for rockfall trajectories.

The Ischia island is volcano-tectonic horst that is a part of the Phlegrean Volcanic District, Southern Italy. It covers an area of about 46 km2 and it has experienced a remarkable ground uplift events due to a resurgence phenomenon. Slope instability is correlated both with earthquakes events and with volcanism phenomena. Specifically, evidences suggest that rockfalls occurred as an effect of the gravitational instability on the major scarps generated by the rapid resurgence, eased by the widespread rock fracturing.

We present results of an analysis relevant to the most probable individual masses trajectories of rockfall affecting the slopes of Ischia island. We first identified the prospective rockfall sources through an expert-mapping of source area in sample locations and statistical analysis on the whole island. Probabilistic sources are the main input of the three-dimensional rockfalls simulation software STONE.

The software assumes point-like masses falling under the sole action of gravity and the constraints of topography, and it calculates trajectories dominated by ballistic dynamics during falling, bouncing and rolling on the ground. Analysis of high-definition critical sector pictures, achieved by using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) platform, will allow a detailed localization of source areas and an additional more robust simulations.

The procedure can be viewed as a multiscale analysis and allows besting allocating computational efforts and economic resources, focusing on a more detailed analysis on the slopes identified as the most risky ones during the first, large-scale analysis of the whole area.

How to cite: De Matteo, A., Alvioli, M., Bonfante, A., Buonanno, M., Castaldo, R., and Tizzani, P.: Slope stability monitoring system via three-dimensional simulations of rockfalls in Ischia island, Southern Italy, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-5618, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-5618, 2022.

Pietro Tizzani et al.

Fra. Si. a national research project supported by the Ministry of the Environment and Land and Sea Protection, develops a coherent set of multiscale methodologies for the assessment and zoning of earthquake-induced landslide hazards. To achieve the goal, the project operates at different geographical, temporal, and organizational scales, and in different geological, geomorphological, and seismic-tectonic contexts. Given the complexity, variability, and extent of earthquake-induced landslides in Italy, operating at multiple scales allows you to (a) maximize the use of available data and information; (b) propose methodologies and experiment with models that operate at different scales and in different contexts, exploiting their peculiarities at the most congenial scales and coherently exporting the results at different scales; and (c) obtain results at scales of interest for different users.

The project defines a univocal and coherent methodological framework for the assessment and zoning of earthquake-induced landslide hazard, integrating existing information and data on earthquake-induced landslide in Italy, available to proponents, available in technical literature and from "open" sources - in favor of the cost-effectiveness of the proposal. The integration exploits a coherent set of modeling tools, expert (heuristic) and numerical (statistical and probabilistic, physically-based, FEM, optimization models). The methodology considers the problem at multiple scales, including: (a) three geographic scales - the national synoptic scale, the regional mesoscale and the local scale; (b) two time scales - the pre-event scale typical of territorial planning and the deferred time of civil protection, and the post-event scale, characteristic of real civil protection time; and (c) different organizational and management scales - from spatial planning and soil defense, including post-seismic reconstruction, to civil protection rapid response. Furthermore, the methodology considers the characteristics of the seismic-induced landslide and the associated hazard in the main geological, geomorphological and seismic-tectonic contexts in Italy.

The project develops methodologies and products for different users and/or users. The former concern methodologies for (i) the synoptic zoning of the hazard caused by earthquake-induced landslides in Italy; (ii) the zoning and quantification of the danger from earthquake-induced landslides on a regional scale; (iii) the quantification of the danger of single deep landslides in the seismic phase; and for (iv) the identification and geological-technical modeling of deep co-seismic landslides starting from advanced DInSAR analyzes from post-seismic satellites.

How to cite: Tizzani, P., Reichenbach, P., Fiorucci, F., Alvioli, M., Moscatelli, M., and Bonfante, A. and the Fra.Si. Team: FRA.SI.project - AN INTEGRATED MULTI-SCALE METHODOLOGIES FOR THE ZONATION OF LANDSLIDE-INDUCED HAZARD IN ITALY, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12927, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12927, 2022.

Paolo Berardino et al.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) represents nowadays a well-established tool for day and night and all-weather microwave Earth Oobservation (EO) [1]. In last decades, a number of procedures EO techniques based on SAR data have been indeed devised developed for investigating several natural and anthropic phenomena the monitoring of affecting our planet. Among these, SAR Interferometry (InSAR) and Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) undoubtedly represent a powerful techniques to characterize the deformation processes associated to several natural phenomena, such as eEarthquakes, landslides, subsidences andor volcanic unrest events [2] - [4].

In particular, such techniques can benefit of the operational flexibility offered by airborne SAR systems, which allow us to frequently monitor fast-evolving phenomena, timely reach the region of interest in case of emergency, and observe the same scene under arbitrary flight tracks.

In this work, we present the results relevant to multiple radar surveys carried out over the Stromboli Island, in Italy, through the Italian Airborne X-band Interferometric SAR (AXIS) system. The latter is based on the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology, and is equipped with a three-antenna single-pass interferometric layout [5].

The considered dataset has been collected during three different acquisition campaigns, carried out from July 2019 to June 2021, and consists of radar data acquired along four flight directions (SW-NE, NW-SE, NE-SW, SE-NW), as to describe flight circuits around the island and to illuminate the Stromboli volcano under different points of view.


[1] Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hajnsek, K. P. Papathanassiou, “A tutorial on Synthetic Aperture Radar”, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, pp. 6-43, March 2013.

[2] Bamler, R., Hartl, P., 1998. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry. Inverse problems, 14(4), R1.

[3] P. Berardino, G. Fornaro, R. Lanari and E. Sansosti, “A new algorithm for surface deformation monitoring based on small baseline differential SAR interferograms”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 2375-2383, Nov. 2002.

[4] R. Lanari, M. Bonano, F. Casu, C. De Luca, M. Manunta, M. Manzo, G. Onorato, I. Zinno, “Automatic Generation of Sentinel-1 Continental Scale DInSAR Deformation Time Series through an Extended P-SBAS Processing Pipeline in a Cloud Computing Environment”, Remote Sensing, 2020, 12, 2961.

[5] C. Esposito, A. Natale, G. Palmese, P. Berardino, R. Lanari, S. Perna, “On the Capabilities of the Italian Airborne FMCW AXIS InSAR System”, Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 539.


How to cite: Berardino, P., Natale, A., Esposito, C., Palmese, G., Lanari, R., and Perna, S.: Stromboli Volcano observations through the Airborne X-band Interferometric SAR (AXIS) system, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-12364, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12364, 2022.

Raffaele Castaldo et al.

Geodetic modelling is a valuable tool to infer volume and geometry of volcanic source system; it represents a key procedure for detecting and characterizing unrest and eruption episodes. In this study, we analyse the 2009–2013 uplift phenomenon at Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera in terms of spatial and temporal variations of the stress/strain field due to the effect of the retrieved inflating source. We start by performing a 3D stationary finite element (FE) modelling of geodetic datasets to retrieve the geometry and location of the deformation source. The geometry of FE domain takes into account both the topography and the bathymetry of the whole caldera. For what concern the definition of domain elastic parameters, we take into account the Vp/Vs distribution from seismic tomography. We optimize our model parameters by exploiting two different geodetic datasets: the GPS data and DInSAR measurements. The modelling results suggest that the best-fit source is a three-axis oblate spheroid ~3 km deep, similar to a sill-like body. Furthermore, in order to verify the reliability of the geometry model results, we calculate the Total Horizontal Derivative (THD) of the vertical velocity component and compare it with those performed with the DInSAR measurements. Subsequently, starting from the same FE modelling domain, we explore a 3D time-dependent FE model, comparing the spatial and temporal distribution of the shear stress and volumetric strain with the seismic swarms beneath the caldera. Finally, We found that low values of shear stress are observed corresponding with the shallow hydrothermal system where low-magnitude earthquakes occur, whereas high values of shear stress are found at depths of about 3 km, where high-magnitude earthquakes nucleate.

How to cite: Castaldo, R., Solaro, G., and Tizzani, P.: Analysis and Modelling of 2009-2013 Unrest Episodes at Campi Flegrei Caldera, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11493, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11493, 2022.

Gianluca Gola et al.

We propose a novel multidisciplinary approach to image the thermo-rheological stratification beneath active volcanic areas, such as Long Valley Caldera (LVC), which hosts a magmatic-hydrothermal system. Geothermal facilities near the Casa Diablo locality supply 40 MWe from three binary power plants, exploiting about 850 kg s−1 of 160–180 °C water that circulates within the volcanic sediments 200 to 350 meters deep. We performed a thermal fluid dynamic model via optimization procedure of the thermal conditions of the crust. We characterize the topology of the hot magmatic bodies and the hot fluid circulation (the permeable fault-zones), using both a novel imaging of the a and b parameters of the Gutenberg-Richter law and an innovative procedure analysis of P-wave tomographic models. The optimization procedure provides the permeability of a reservoir (5.0 × 10−14 m2) and of the fault-zone (5.0 · 10−14 – 1.0 × 10−13 m2), as well as the temperature of the magma body (750–800°C). The imaging of the rheological properties of the crust indicates that the brittle/ductile transition occurs about 5 km b.s.l. depth, beneath the resurgent dome. There are again deeper brittle conditions about 15 km b.s.l., agreeing with the previous observations. The comparison between the conductive and the conductive-convective heat transfer models highlights that the deeper fluid circulation efficiently cools the volumes above the magmatic body, transferring the heat to the shallow geothermal system. This process has a significant impact on the rheological properties of the upper crust as the migration of the B/D transition. Our findings show an active magmatic system (6–10 km deep) and confirm that LVC is a long-life silicic caldera system. Furthermore, the occurrence of deep-seated, super-hot geothermal resources 4.5 – 5.0 km deep, possibly in supercritical conditions, cannot be ruled out.

How to cite: Gola, G., Barone, A., Castaldo, R., Chiodini, G., D'Auria, L., García-Hernández, R., Pepe, S., Solaro, G., and Tizzani, P.: Integrating geophysical, geochemical, petrological and geological data for the thermal and rheological characterization of unconventional geothermal fields: the case study of Long Valley Caldera, EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11990, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11990, 2022.

Andrea Barone et al.

Thermal features of environmental systems are increasingly investigated after the development of remote sensing technologies; the increasing availability of Earth Observation (EO) missions allows the retrieval of the Land Surface Temperature (LST) parameter, which is widely used for a large variety of applications (Galve et al., 2018). In volcanic environment, the LST is an indicator of the spatial distribution of thermal anomalies at the ground surface, supporting designed tools for monitoring purposes (Caputo et al., 2019); therefore, LST can be used to understand endogenous processes and to model thermal sources.

In this framework, we present the results of activities carried out in the FLUIDs PRIN project, which aims at the characterization and modeling of fluids migration at different scales (https://www.prinfluids.it/). We propose a multi-scale analysis of thermal data at Campi Flegrei caldera (CFc); this area is well known for hosting thermal processes related to both magmatic and hydrothermal systems (Chiodini et al., 2015; Castaldo et al., 2021). Accordingly, data collected at different scales are suitable to search out local thermal trends with respect to regional ones. In particular, in this work we compare LST estimated from Landsat satellite images covering the entire volcanic area and ground measurements nearby the Solfatara crater.

Firstly, we exploit Landsat data to derive time series of LST by applying an algorithm based on Radiative Transfer Equations (RTE) (Qin et al., 2001; Jimenez-Munoz et al., 2014). The algorithm exploits both thermal infrared (TIR) and visible/near infrared (VIS/NIR) bands of different Landsat missions in the period 2000-2021; we used time series imagery from Landsat 5 (L5), Landsat 7 (L7) and Landsat 8 (L8) satellite missions to retrieve the thermal patterns of the CFc area with spatial resolutions of 30 m for VIS/NIR bands and 60 m to 120 m for TIR bands. Theoretical frequency of acquisition of the Landsat missions is 16 days that is reduced over the study area by cloud cover: Landsat images with high cloud cover were in fact discarded from the time series.

In particular, we process both the daily acquisitions as well nighttime data to provide thermal features at the ground surface in the absence of solar radiation. To emphasize the thermal anomalies of endogenous phenomena, the retrieved LST time-series are corrected following these steps: (i) removal of spatial and temporal outliers; (ii) correction for adiabatic gradient of the air with the altitude; (iii) detection and removal of the seasonal component.

Regarding to the ground-based acquisitions, we consider the data collected by the Osservatorio Vesuviano, National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (OV- INGV, Italy, Naples); the dataset consists of 151 thermal measurements distributed within the 2004-2021 time-interval and acquired inside the Solfatara and Pisciarelli areas at a depth of 0.01 m below the ground surface. Similarly, we process this dataset following corrections (i) and (iii).

Finally, we compare the temporal evolution of thermal patterns retrieved by the satellite and ground-based measurements, highlighting the supporting information provided by LST and its integration with data at ground.

How to cite: Barone, A., Stroppiana, D., Castaldo, R., Caliro, S., Chiodini, G., D'Auria, L., Gola, G., Parisi, F., Pepe, S., Solaro, G., and Tizzani, P.: Time evolution of Land Surface Temperature (LST) in active volcanic areas detected via integration of satellite and ground-based measurements: the Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy) case study., EGU General Assembly 2022, Vienna, Austria, 23–27 May 2022, EGU22-11874, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu22-11874, 2022.

Discussion and questions