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Open Session in Geomagnetism

This session provides the opportunity for contributions that fall within the broad spectrum of Geomagnetism, but are not directly appropriate to any of the other proposed sessions. We solicit contributions on theory and simulations, instrumentation, laboratory experiments and field measurements, data analysis and interpretation, as well as inversion and modelling techniques.

Convener: Georgios Balasis | Co-convener: Angelo De Santis
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Tue, 27 Apr, 09:00–10:30

Chairpersons: Georgios Balasis, Angelo De Santis

5-minute convener introduction

Gauthier Hulot et al.

The geomagnetic field has been continuously monitored from low-Earth orbit (LEO) since 1999, complementing ground-based observatory data by providing calibrated scalar and vector measurements with global coverage. The successful three-satellite ESA Swarm constellation is expected to remain in operation up to at least 2025. Further monitoring the field from space with high-precision absolute magnetometry beyond that date is of critical importance for improving our understanding of dynamics of the multiple components of this field, as well as that of the ionospheric environment. Here, we will report on the latest status of the NanoMagSat project, which aims to deploy and operate a new constellation concept of three identical 16U nanosatellites, using two inclined (approximately 60°) and one polar LEO, as well as an innovative payload including an advanced Miniaturized Absolute scalar and self-calibrated vector Magnetometer (MAM) combined with a set of precise star trackers (STR), a compact High-frequency Field Magnetometer (HFM, sharing subsystems with the MAM), a multi-needle Langmuir Probe (m-NLP) and dual frequency GNSS receivers. The data to be produced will at least include 1 Hz absolutely calibrated and oriented magnetic vector field (using the MAM and STR), 2 kHz very low noise magnetic scalar (using the MAM) and vector (using the HFM) field, 2 kHz local electron density (using the m-NLP) as well as precise timing, location and TEC products. In addition to briefly presenting the nanosatellite and constellation concepts, as well as the evolving programmatic status of the mission (which already underwent a consolidation study funded by the ESA Scout programme), this presentation will illustrate through a number of E2E simulations the ability of NanoMagSat to complement and improve on many of the science goals of the Swarm mission at a much lower cost, and to bring innovative science capabilities for ionospheric investigations. NanoMagSat could form the basis of a permanent collaborative constellation of nanosatellites for low-cost long-term monitoring of the geomagnetic field and ionospheric environment from space.

How to cite: Hulot, G., Léger, J.-M., Clausen, L. B. N., Deconinck, F., Coïsson, P., Vigneron, P., Alken, P., Chulliat, A., Finlay, C. C., Grayver, A., Kuvschinov, A., Olsen, N., Thébault, E., Jager, T., Bertrand, F., and Häfner, T.: NanoMagSat, a 16U nanosatellite constellation high-precision magnetic project to initiate permanent low-cost monitoring of the Earth’s magnetic field and ionospheric environment, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14660, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14660, 2021.

Tamara Litvinova

A digital map of the anomalous magnetic field  (AMF) of Russia has been created over 12 years in the monitoring (update) mode. The map was built from the level of the normal magnetic field Т n VSEGEI-1965  at a scale of 1: 2,500,000 using materials that were not previously involved in the process of summary mapping, taking into account modern digital technologies. The base of digital cartographic data contains grids on the network of 2,500 ×2,500 and 5,000×5,000 m and cartographic projects in * .mxd.
The anomalous component is of particular interest in the study of geodynamic processes and dynamic environments in the earth's crust and upper mantle. It is believed that the anomalous (short-wave or high-frequency) component, being a quasi-stationary (Lugovenko V.N., 1982) function of the general geomagnetic field, almost does not change over time. However, when calculating it, the primary role is played by the correct registration of the secular variation and the normal field, which change both in time and in space, and these changes are closely related to the dynamic processes inside the Earth. The works of T. Nagata (1969), F. Stacey (1974, 1977), Yu.P. Skovorodkin and L.S. Bezugloy (1980), V.A. Shapiro (1983) and others showed that the anomalous magnetic field of the Earth is also characterized by temporary changes associated with the dynamics of field sources, manifested in anomalies of the secular course. There is a connection between the secular variation anomalies and regional medium-scale anomalies. Within the Manchazh regional anomaly, the anomalous magnetic field increases monotonically at a rate of up to ±5 nT per year. It has been established that the source of the Manchazh anomaly is a block of rocks with increasing remanent magnetization, the mechanism of which is still unclear. The relationship between AMF changes with changes in the seismic regime and with individual earthquakes is evidenced by changes in the amplitudes of temporary changes in the local field from 5-8 nT at the Carpathian geodynamic test site and up to 30-80 nT during the Moneron earthquake on southern Sakhalin. Changes up to the first tens of nT AMFs were recorded several days before the Tashkent earthquake (Ulomov, 1967). During this earthquake, the author of this article observed the glow of the atmosphere, which indicates strong short-term changes in the variable geomagnetic field, which caused ionization processes in the surface layers of the atmosphere.
The Earth's magnetic field is 99% generated by its internal sources and reacts sensitively to nonequilibrium phase transitions of a different hierarchical class, which are the basis for the self-organization of the planet Earth system. On the map of magnetic anomalies of Russia, geostructures of different orders of rectilinear, circular, arcuate mosaic forms of anomalies are clearly distinguished, grouped into systems, the shape and size of which allows to reasonably judge the geodynamic conditions of their formation.


How to cite: Litvinova, T.: An updated summary digital map of the anomalous magnetic field of Russia as a base for geo-modeling, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-3292, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-3292, 2021.

Saioa A. Campuzano et al.

The Shannon Information or Information Content is a statistical measure of a system characterising its properties of organisation (maximum value) or disorder (minimum value). Once it is introduced the scalar potential of the geomagnetic field in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion, it is straightforward to define the Shannon Information by an expression including the Gauss coefficients [De Santis et al., EPSL, 2004]. Some recent models of the past geomagnetic field, including also the two most recent excursions, i.e. Laschamp (~41 ka) and Mono Lake (~34 ka) events, allow us to calculate the Shannon Information in the periods of those events and compare each other. It is expected that when approaching to excursions, the Shannon Information decreases, i.e. the disorder of the system increases. From the behaviour in time of the Shannon Information calculated from the Gauss coefficients of three geomagnetic field reconstructions that span the last excursions, i.e. IMOLE, GGF100k and LSMOD2, it is observed a decrease of the Shannon Information that seems to anticipate the occurrence of the impending excursions some time in advance. This result must be taken with caution because the reconstructions used are based on sedimentary data, which could present some smoothing effects related to the acquisition of the magnetisation mechanism.

How to cite: Campuzano, S. A., De Santis, A., Orlando, M., Pavón-Carrasco, F. J., and Molina-Cardín, A.: Shannon Information of the geomagnetic field during the excursions, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-5305, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-5305, 2021.

Alicia González-López et al.

The geomagnetic field is commonly approximated to a geocentric tilted dipole. However, a next step in the approach of the geomagnetic field is the eccentric dipole which takes the first and second terms of the spherical harmonic representation of the geomagnetic field. In this work, we analyze the behavior of the eccentric dipole during the last reversal (Matuyama – Brunhes, 780 ka), the last excursions (Laschamp, 41 ka, and Mono Lake, 34 ka), and during two interesting features of the geomagnetic field observed during the Holocene (the South Atlantic Anomaly, from 1840 AD or older, and the Levantine Iron Age Anomaly, around 1000 BC). The last reversal and excursions are studied by using the IMMAB4 and LSMOD2 paleoreconstructions, respectively. We found that for these events the center of the eccentric dipole follows a common longitude path. The Holocene anomalies have been analyzed by using two of the most up-to-date paleoreconstructions for the last 3 millennia: the SHAWQ2k and the SHAWQ Iron Age paleoreconstructions. A common longitude path has not been observed between these anomalies.

How to cite: González-López, A., A. Campuzano, S., Rivera, P., Molina-Cardín, A., Pavón-Carrasco, F. J., and Osete, M. L.: Eccentric dipole of the geomagnetic field during the last reversal, last excursions, and the most significant Holocene anomalies, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-4237, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-4237, 2021.

M. Alexandra Pais et al.

The magnetic observatory of Coimbra (IAGA code COI) measures the geomagnetic field components since 1866. These long time series were disturbed by the urban expansion in Coimbra city, causing anthropogenic perturbations in particular to the high frequency spectral band of the vertical Z component.

We plan to move the observatory to another site with less magnetic disturbances. The new site is about 15 km west of Coimbra over limestone Cretaceous terrains, in São Marcos (SMC). It is far from important industrial facilities, high voltage lines, and DC electrified railways. This farm is under administration of the University of Coimbra and is surrounded by walls.  

Both magnetic surveys and electrical soundings were carried out at SMC. Results show low values for the magnetic gradients and resistivity profiles of relatively low to moderate values (~ 10-1000 ohm.m), typical of the studied lithological types (sandstone, marl and limestone). In this study we characterize the geomagnetic field as measured at SMC, in comparison with COI and SPT (San Pablo/Toledo) in Spain, the nearest observatory in the INTERMAGNET network of magnetic observatories.

How to cite: Pais, M. A., Ribeiro, P., Pinheiro, K., Vinicius, M., and Matzka, J.: Geophysical study of viability for a new geomagnetic observatory at São Marcos (Portugal), EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-12312, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-12312, 2021.

Lemgharbi Abdenaceur et al.

In order to understand the spatial and temporal behavior of the Earth's magnetic field, scientists, following C.F. Gauss initiative in 1838 have established observatories around the world. More than 200 observatories aiming to continuously record, the time variations of the magnetic field vector and to maintain the best standard of the accuracy and resolution of the measurements.

This study focused on the acquisition and analysis of the magnetic data provided by the Algerian magnetic observatory of Tamanrasset (labelled TAM by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy). This observatory is located in southern Algeria at 5.53°E longitude, 22.79°N Latitude. Its altitude is 1373 meters above msl. TAM is continuously running since 1932, using old brand variometers, like Mascart and La Cour with photographic recording at the very beginning. Nowadays modern electronic equipment are used in the framework of INTERMAGNET project. Very large geomagnetic database collected over a century is available. We will describe the history and the various improvement of the methods and instrumentation.

Preliminary analysis of time series of the observatory data allowed to distinguish two kinds of data: the first type, with low resolution, collected between 1932 and 1992. This data set comes from the annual, monthly, daily and hourly means. The second one with high resolution is represented by minutes and seconds sampling rate since 1993 when TAM was integrated to the world observatory network, INTERMAGNET. Part of the second dataset contains many gaps. We try to fill these gaps thanks to mathematical methods. Absolute measurements and repeat station data allow better accuracy in the secular variations and an improved regional model.

Keywords: TAM observatory, temporal variation, terrestrial magnetic field, secular variations, INTERMAGNET.

How to cite: Abdenaceur, L., Mohamed, H., Abdeslam, A., Bendekken, A., Aganou, E., Abderrahman, H., and Abdallah, M.: The Earth's magnetic field variations at the Algerian magnetic observatory of Tamanrasset from 1932 to 2020., EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-2446, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-2446, 2021.

Alejandro Paredes-Arriaga et al.

We present the construction of magnetic declination charts corresponding to five epochs for last one hundred years; this was result of recovery and statistical analysis of historical magnetic data. The charts were made with the records of magnetic repeat stations reoccupation, distributed throughout the country, the goal was to observe and study the geomagnetic field morphology and their space-temporal variations in Mexico. We aimed to systematize an optimal numerical method for the spatial estimation to minimize the error given the average data for any Mexican magnetic chart: forty magnetic repeat stations and only one magnetic observatory. Also, the charts were compared with the original charts made in its corresponding epoch. The charts quality was improved and the historic geomagnetic information preserved, considering the invaluable record of historical magnetic measurements that exist in Mexico.

How to cite: Paredes-Arriaga, A., Caccavari-Garza, A., Hernández-Quintero, E., and Cifuentes-Nava, G.: Declination magnetic charts for Mexico since 1907.0 to 2010.0, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8971, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8971, 2021.

Alessandro Ghirotto et al.

The Mt. Melbourne Volcanic Complex (MMVC) is located in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) along the western flank of the West Antarctic Rift System, at the boundary with the Transantarctic Mountains. It is constituted by two main volcanic areas, i.e. the Mt. Melbourne Edifice (MME) and the Cape Washington Shield (CWS), and some other minor centres.

To date, the inner structure of this volcanic complex is still poorly known, being the direct geological information on site confined to either glacial erratics or a few rock outcrops not hidden by the ice sheet. Consequently, even the temporal building up and evolution of the MMVC as well as its primary magmatic source are still under investigation (debated).

Recently, we attempted to define the geological structure of the MMVC by means of digital enhancement and forward modeling performed on a high-resolution aeromagnetic dataset (Ghirotto et al. 2020, EGU). Coupling both information derived from past geological/geophysical studies and unpublished magnetic susceptibility measurements from rock samples collected in the field, we proposed two models to explain the chronological evolution of the MME and CWS. These models involve either i) major magmatic events occurred in periods of both normal and reverse magnetic polarity or ii) only magmatic flows with normal polarity.

To gain further insights into the geological structure and the geodynamic evolution of the MMVC in relation to the two proposed models, we develop here a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm (Fichtner et al. 2018) based on the probabilistic approach to inverse problems. To date, this methodology has never been applied to aeromagnetic data for geological studies. In detail, the above proposed models provide some soft a priori information from which to start exploring potential solutions. The parameterization of the volcanic area is defined in terms of 2-D polygonal bodies, representing e.g. magmatic lava flows, where the unknown parameters are represented by both the position of the vertices and/or the magnetization (induced and/or remnant), resulting in a non-linear forward model. The HMC algorithm requires the computation of gradients of the posterior probability density (PPD), i.e., derivatives of the objective functional with respect to the position of vertices of the bodies and magnetization, in order to better move the inversion process toward high-probability areas in the model space manifold. We implement such calculations using automatic differentiation, a tool which is very accurate and fast compared to other approaches such as finite difference. The result of the inversion is then a collection of models representing the PPD, from which statistical analysis can provide measures of uncertainty and plausible geological scenarios.

In this study we present some preliminary results of applying the above-mentioned methodology, which finally could help unravel the framework of the MMVC.

How to cite: Ghirotto, A., Zunino, A., Armadillo, E., Crispini, L., and Ferraccioli, F.: Imaging the Mt. Melbourne Volcanic Field (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica): a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo approach applied to high-resolution aeromagnetic data, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9106, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9106, 2021.

Svetlana Riabova and Sergei Shalimov

There has long been interest in the sources of ionospheric variability, especially in how this variability can be caused by the dynamics of the neutral atmosphere. Many studies have found planetary wave fluctuations in ionospheric parameters, especially f0F2, with periods ranging from 2 to 20 days. We investigate variations of the geomagnetic field and critical frequency of the F2-layer in the range of planetary waves in winter. We used the data of geomagnetic monitoring at the Central Geophysical Observatory at Belsk of Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland, Belsk) and the results of high-frequency sounding of the ionosphere in the form of ionograms obtained by the Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland, Warsaw).  In the spectra of temporal variations of the geomagnetic field and the critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer in the range of planetary waves periods in winter season, we found both harmonics associated with the modulation effect of longer-period (annual and 11-year) variations and tidal effects, and a harmonic corresponding to a quasi 16-day planetary wave. Possible mechanisms of their manifestations in the upper atmosphere are discussed.

How to cite: Riabova, S. and Shalimov, S.: Investigation of the ionospheric plasma parameters variations in the range of planetary waves periods using Warsaw ionosonde and Belsk observatory data, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-14185, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-14185, 2021.

José Devienne et al.

The cloudy zone (CZ), an intergrowth structure of Fe-rich and Ni-rich phases that forms during slow cooling of iron meteorites are potential recorders of  their parent body’s thermal and magnetic history. The ability of the cloudy zone’s principal magnetic minerals, taenite and tetrataenite, to reliably record ancient magnetic fields from the early solar system has, however, insufficiently been investigated. In this work we performed a series of micromagnetic simulations in order to assess the magnetic stability of taenite grains. Micromagnetic simulations allow to investigate the changes in the magnetic state in taenite as a function of the grain size: in ellipsoidal grains below 68 nm (equivalent sphere volume diameter, ESVD) a single domain state dominates.  At 68 nm (ESVD) a “flowering” state starts, and further increase in size (> 75 nm) gives rise to a single vortex state. Contrary to common conception, theoretical evaluation of relaxation times for taenite grains based on micromagnetics leads to values that exceed the age of solar system, which makes taenite, not just its ordered equivalent tetrataenite, a reliable paleomagnetic recorder.

How to cite: Devienne, J., Berndt, T., and Williams, W.: Micromagnetic simulation of taenite particles, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-11937, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-11937, 2021.

Julien Baerenzung and Matthias Holschneider

We present a new high resolution model of the Geomagnetic field spanning the last 121 years. The model derives from a large set of data taken by low orbiting satellites, ground based observatories, marine vessels, airplane and during land surveys. It is obtained by combining a Kalman filter to a smoothing algorithm. Seven different magnetic sources are taken into account. Three of them are of internal origin. These are the core, the lithospheric  and the induced / residual ionospheric fields. The other four sources are of external origin. They are composed by a close, a remote and a fluctuating magnetospheric fields as well as a source associated with field aligned currents. The dynamical evolution of each source is prescribed by an auto regressive process of either first or second order, except for the lithospheric field which is assumed to be static. The parameters of the processes were estimated through a machine learning algorithm with a sample of data taken by the low orbiting satellites of the CHAMP and Swarm missions. In this presentation we will mostly focus on the rapid variations of the core field, and the small scale lithospheric field.  We will also discuss the nature of model uncertainties and the limitiations they imply.

How to cite: Baerenzung, J. and Holschneider, M.: Kalmag: a high spatio temporal model of the Geomagnetic field, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7173, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7173, 2021.

Angelo De Santis et al.

In-situ magnetic field and electron density, as observed by Swarm and CSES satellites, are analyzed to identify possible anomalies in geomagnetic quiet time with respect to the ionospheric background. To avoid detecting possible anomalies induced by auroral activity we investigate regions between +50 and -50 degrees in magnetic latitude. Then a superposed epoch and space approach is applied to this anomaly dataset with respect to their time and space distance from shallow M5.5+ earthquakes occurred in about last 6 years. A comparison with analogous homogeneous random distribution of anomalies shows that the real anomaly concentrations found before the occurrence of earthquakes are statistically significant. In addition, we find that, in general, the anticipation times of the ionospheric precursors scale with the earthquake magnitude, confirming the validity of the Rikitake law for ionospheric signals, previously valid for ground precursors. We also find that the anomaly duration seems to depend on the magnitude of the impending earthquake. Finally, we propose a simple scheme of potential earthquake forecast on the base of the previously mentioned characteristics.

How to cite: De Santis, A., Campuzano, S. A., Cianchini, G., Di Mauro, D., Marchetti, D., Orlando, M., Perrone, L., Piscini, A., Sabbagh, D., Soldani, M., Shen, X., and Zhima, Z.: Ionospheric precursors of earthquakes from satellites, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-10207, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-10207, 2021.

Georgios Balasis et al.

For 7 years now, the European Space Agency’s Swarm fleet of satellites surveys the Earth’s magnetic field, measuring magnetic and electric fields at low-Earth orbit (LEO) with unprecedented detail. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of Swarm measurements to derive a Swarm Dst-like index for the intense magnetic storms of solar cycle 24. We have shown that the newly proposed Swarm Dst-like index monitors magnetic storm activity at least as good as the standard Dst index. The Swarm derived Dst index can be used to (1) supplement the standard Dst index in near-real-time geomagnetic applications and (2) replace the ‘prompt’ Dst index during periods of unavailability. Herein, we employ a series of information theory methods, namely Hurst exponent and various entropy measures, for analyzing Swarm Dst-like time series. The results show that information theory techniques can effectively detect the dissimilarity of complexity between the pre-storm activity and intense magnetic storms (Dst < 150 nT), which is convenient for space weather applications.

How to cite: Balasis, G., Papadimitriou, C., Potirakis, S. M., Boutsi, A. Z., Daglis, I. A., Giannakis, O., De Michelis, P., and Consolini, G.: A preliminary investigation of dynamical complexity in Swarm Dst-like time series using information theory techniques, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-8931, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-8931, 2021.

Enkelejda Qamili et al.

The European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission, launched on November 2013, continue to provide very accurate measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the Earth’s magnetic field. These data together with precise navigation, accelerometer, electric field, plasma density and temperature measurements, are crucial for a better understanding of the Earth’s interior and its environment. This paper will provide a status update of the Swarm Instrument performance after seven years of operations. Moreover, we will provide full details on the new Swarm Level 1b product baseline of Magnet and Plasma data which will be generated and distributed soon to the whole Swarm Community.  Please note that the main evolutions to be introduced in the Swarm L1B Algorithm are: i) computation of the Sun induced magnetic disturbance (dB_Sun) on the Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) and Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) data; ii) computation of systematic offset between Langmuir Probes (LP) measurements ad ground observations derived from Incoherent Scatter Radars (IRS) located at middle, low, and equatorial latitudes. These and further improvements are planned to be included in the upcoming versions of the Swarm Level 1b products, aiming at achieving the best data quality for scientific applications.

How to cite: Qamili, E., Catapano, F., Tøffner-Clausen, L., Buchert, S., Siemes, C., Mizerska, A., Bregnhøj Nielsen, J., Nilsson, T., Miedzik, J., Mazzocato, M. E., Trenchi, L., Bouffard, J., Stromme, A., Vogel, P., and Hoyos ortega, B.: Swarm Mission: instruments performance, data availability, quality and future evolutions, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-15443, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-15443, 2021.

Ashley Smith and Martin Pačes

ESA's Swarm mission continues to deliver excellent data providing insight into a wide range of geophysical phenomena. The mission is an important asset whose data are used within a number of critical resources, from geomagnetic field models to space weather services. As the product portfolio grows to better deliver on the mission's scientific goals, we face increasing complexity in accessing, processing, and visualising the data and models. ESA provides “VirES for Swarm” [1] (developed by EOX IT Services) to help solve this problem. VirES is a web-based data retrieval and visualisation tool where the majority of Swarm products are available. VirES has a graphical interface but also a machine-to-machine interface (API) for programmable use (a Python client is provided). The VirES API also provides access to geomagnetic ground observatory data, as well as forwards evaluation of geomagnetic field models to give data-model residuals. The "Virtual Research Environment" (VRE) adds utility to VirES with a free cloud-based JupyterLab interface allowing scientists to immediately program their own analysis of Swarm products using the Python ecosystem. We are augmenting this with a suite of Jupyter notebooks and dashboards, each targeting a specific use case, and seek community involvement to grow this resource.

[1] https://vires.services

How to cite: Smith, A. and Pačes, M.: VirES for Swarm & Virtual Research Environment: Software, guides & infrastructure to boost accessibility of Swarm, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-9272, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-9272, 2021.

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