Oceanographic processes at coastal scales present a number of important differences with respect to deep water oceanography, which result in higher prediction errors. In shallow water coastal domains, the bottom topography exerts a strong control on the resulting wave/current fields and other factors need to be accounted for (stratification and mixing effects or land boundary condition). Moreover, the coupling between wind, waves, currents and sediments at limited scales, or even the choice of numerical strategy (nested meshes, finite-elements, etc.) may also play a critical role in the quality of the predictions. Coastal observations are therefore necessary to drive numerical models, combining in-situ data and satellite images. The advent of new satellite capabilities (resolution and sensors like for instance those of the Sentinel constellation) and new modelling advances (coupling, unstructured grids and boundary conditions) together with enhanced coastal observatories should lead to a qualitative advance of coastal oceanography. The introduction of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Deep Learning and Big Data techniques can speed up the required advances and facilitate applications.
These issues are even more relevant in a framework of changing climate, since coastal and transitional areas are strongly impacted by climate. Because of these reasons, it is timely to discuss recent advances in fields such as: coupled ocean-atmosphere-sediment modelling; hydrological, biogeochemical and geomorphological variability of coastal regions; aggregation of in-situ/satellite/numerical Big Data; criteria for optimising integrated coastal predictions and observatories. Building upon these challenges, we invite for this session presentations on satellite/in-situ measurements, coastal assimilation, metocean-riverine coupling, water/sediment/nutrient fluxes through coastal systems, operational predictions and observations and coastal error limits and uncertainties. These topics, emphasizing coastal variability (hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and bio-geochemical processes) and their interactions with coastal infrastructure/activities should conform a fruitful session for coastal ocean science, where we intend to organise a special collection of the best presentations for an EGU journal.
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