Tectonically and volcanically active areas are subject to faulting, fracturing, volcanic eruptions, caldera or flank collapse, and magmatic intrusions, such as dyking. These events trigger typical geomorphological features and geomorphological changes that researchers can study in the field and remotely. Satellite data using optical or thermal sensors, and ship acoustics datasets, provide first order information about faulting and volcanic activity, however, there is a resolution gap below the meter-scale, critical to detect and to analyse small structures over broad areas and to better assess how faults, magma intrusions and collapses nucleate and evolve. Moreover, during large metrical ground deformations (earthquakes, dyke intrusions, collapses), the near-field area where satellite radar signal (InSAR) becomes incoherent remains poorly studied, likewise happens in deep sea environments using vessel-based acoustics techniques. In addition, classical field surveys and data collection are, very often, not feasible due to difficult logistic conditions and/or inaccessible areas. Therefore, there is a need to collect higher resolution data to better understand geomorphologic, faulting and volcanic processes at scales from cm to a few meters, that complement classical field studies and remote sensing data.
Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques have been applied using imagery acquired from field, aerial and underwater survey, using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, i.e. drones), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), balloons, airplanes and helicopters, as well as cameras and mobile phones. This technique produces digital surface models (DSM), ortho-mosaic imagery, dense point clouds and 3-D models, creating a high-resolution environment reconstruction for local outcrops or broader areas.
The session will focus on the application of SfM for research in the field of structural geology, active tectonics, volcano-tectonics, and geomorphology, with particular regard to tectonically and volcanically active areas. The session covers the following topics: i) case studies where the SfM has been employed; ii) SfM methods, 3-D reconstruction and post-processing analysis; iii) integration and comparison of SfM-derived, field and broad-scale data (such as satellites and acoustics techniques); iv) new tools and methods for data analysis on SfM-derived models; and vi) future works and applications of SfM techniques.
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